• Comparisons to VBAM
• Campaign Description
• Sequence of Play
• Allowed Empires
• Starting Conditions
• Empire Special Conditions
Map Setup
Income Phase
Turn Orders Phase
Tech Phase
Intel Phase
Non-Player Entities
Movement Phase
Sector-Based Movement
Combat Phase
Supply Phase
Encounters Phase
Space Combat Phase
Orbital Bombardment Phase
Troop Combat Phase
Construction Completion Phase
Update Asset Phase
End of Turn Phase
• Abilities
Sample Game


This game is an attempt to run a Star Fleet Battles, published by ADB, campaign under the rules given by the Victory By Any Means (v1e) ruleset, published by VBAM Games.

We recognize that these two companies are currently engaged in creating a product, named Federation Admiralty. However, that game been in development since 2008 and still no known release date. It appears that Federation Admiralty is a missions-based campaign game, rather than an adaptation of Victory by Any Means to the Star Fleet Universe. This document is intended to provide that adaptation.


This is a "4X" style of campaign, where each player takes on the role of an entire empire in their efforts to "eXplore", "eXpand", "eXploit", and "eXterminate". Each player may achieve their goals by a variety of methods, from full scale war to economic domination to diplomatic unification to technological superiority.


Income Phase
Turn Orders Phase
Tech Phase
Intel Phase
Movement Phase
Combat Phase
• Supply Phase
• Encounters Phase
• Space Combat Phase
• Orbital Bombardment Phase
• Troop Combat Phase
Construction Completion Phase
Update Asset Phase
End of Turn Phase



The allowed empires to start with are those who have the infrastructure to take and hold territory, plus have a logistics network that can service that territory. Primarily it is those empires that have bases, have freighters, and have warships. This removes the empires such as the Jindarians (R16.0), the Orions (R8.0), and most of the simulator races of Module C4. Also, the intent is to remove those empires that have limitations on them in the source material that cannot be properly modelled with an effective "same start" as the other positions. This leaves out the Neo-Tholians (R7.60), the WYN (R14.0), the LDR (R14.0), and the Seltorians (R15.0).

The following empires are allowed:
• The Federation (R2.0)
• The Klingon Empire (R3.0)
• The Romulan Empire (R4.0)
• The Kzinti Hegemony (R5.0)
• The Gorn Confederation (R6.0)
• The Tholian Holdfast (R7.0)
• The Hydran Kingdom (R9.0) (Module C1)
• The Andromedan Invasion (R10.0) (Module C2)
• The Lyran Empire (R11.0) (Module C1)
• The Interstellar Concordium (R13.0) (Module C2)
• The Vudar Enclave (R17.0) (Module F2)
• The Paravian Mauraders (R18.0) (Module C6)
• The Carnivon Hordes (R19.0) (Module C6)
• The Frax Battle Line (R51.0) (Module C4)
• The Quari (R52.0) (Module C4)


Each player has a list of ships they could build. As their technology advances, this list will change to include more effective ships and ships with wider variety of roles. In most campaigns, this list of ships is public, so that other players can identify what ships they are encountering in each meeting of fleets.

Each player may start with a certain number of spaces "owned", and perhaps a further number of spaces "explored". There may be non-player positions, which are run by computer.

As an optional rule, players may not be in complete control of their empire: The signing and breaking of treaties may instead be handled by computer. However, players are not wholly out of control: they can influence their governments into better or worse relations with their neighbors.


Not every empire has the same operational parameters. Here is were those differences are addressed.

The Map

Random Galaxy Generator

The random generation of a campaign map allows players to create a new playing field for every campaign. The map consists of systems containing resources and jump lanes that serve as paths between systems for ships to travel along.

The campaign map is generated starting from the middle and expands outward in “rings” of systems. As you generate each system’s particular statistics, you automatically determine if additional systems need to be created in the next ring. The number of players in the game limits the number of rings of systems that you generate. The first system, placed in the center of the new map, is known as the Hub and has special rules associated with it. The second and last rings also have special rules associated with them.

The Hub

The map is generated from a central system referred to as the “Hub”. It is also the only system in the first “ring”. Whenever a reference to a higher ring is made, the Hub is at the top and the later rings descend from it. This is a special system and is automatically a major system. Roll up the Hub’s special traits as a major system (see System Generation). The Hub has a number of jump lanes from it equal to three plus one for every four players in the campaign (ex: A three player or smaller game has a hub with three jump lanes, a four to seven player game as a hub with four jump lanes, etc). At the end of each jump lane is a system in the second ring. Place these systems symmetrically around the hub in a ring so that every system is equidistant to the Hub and equidistant its neighbors.

The Second Ring

The second ring of systems is treated, for the most part, like any other system in the game. You roll for the system importance, number of jump lanes and special system traits like any other system. However, a second ring system always receives a +1 on the jump lane destination table and a –1 on the Jump Lanes Table, preventing a second ring system from linking up one ring and accounting for its link to the Hub. As you roll up the stats for each system in the second ring you will generate systems in the third ring, until you have fill the entire galaxy. You will continue this process until you produce four (4) rings plus one (1) additional ring for every four players in the campaign (ex: A three player or smaller game will have four rings, a four to seven player game will have five rings, etc).

The Last Ring

Systems in the last ring cannot have jump lanes that link down to the next ring, as there are no more rings. Anytime a system in the last ring would link down, simply reduce the number of jump lanes for the system by one instead and continue.

If you end up with fewer systems in the last ring than there are players, the system with the fewest jump lanes in the next to the last ring will receive an additional jump lane to the last ring, creating a new system in the last ring. If more than one system in the next to the last ring is tied for the fewest jump lanes, randomly determine which one will receive the additional jump lane. Repeat this procedure until there is a system in the last ring for every player in the game. This is important, as players will pick a world in the last ring to be their homeworld!

Generate system statistics for systems in the last ring as normal, if a system in the last ring is picked to become a player’s homeworld, the system keeps its special traits, but replaces its base statistics with those for a homeworld. Its special traits then adjust these homeworld statistics.

System Generation

When you have completed all steps necessary to generate every system in a ring (starting after you’ve rolled the additional special traits of the Hub as the first ring), roll randomly to determine which system in the next ring you’ll generate first. Generate the remaining systems in the ring in clockwise order. Complete these four steps to generate a system:

1) Roll for Importance on System Importance Table

The System Importance Table actually provides two descriptions of the system. The two descriptions are used to give differing modifiers in the following tables, giving systems more individuality. It will also determine the base statistics for a world.

2) Roll for Number ofJump Lanes on Jump Lanes Table

The number of jump lanes that a system has is generated from this table. However, the system you are resolving will have at least one jump lane already. The jump lanes already connected to the system do count. In the case that you roll a number of jump lanes less than the number already connected, simply add no further jump lanes, but do not erase any pre-existing jump lanes, either. Later, another system may link to one already resolved and increase the resolved system’s number of jump lanes.

3) Roll for Position of Jump Lanes on the Jump Lane Position Table

The first jump lane you need to position will always be a jump lane to the next outer (lower) ring (and creating a system in that ring). After the first jump lane, roll on the table to position the remaining jump lanes. The “Link to system one ring up” result will result in a jump lane to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise neighbor (determine by coin flip) of the system that created the current system. These are the only valid targets of a jump lane positioned “up” to an inner ring. This will increase the number of jump lanes connecting to these already resolved systems. The own ring result will result in a link to either the clockwise or counter-clockwise neighbor of the current system. Again, these are the only valid targets of jump lanes positioned in your own ring. The “Create a system in the next ring and link to it” result means that you will produce another system in the next (lower or outer) ring. If you are already linked to all possible targets of a Jump Lane Position Table result, simply re-roll until you can legally position a jump lane.

4) Roll for Additional Special Traits on the Special Traits Table

Special Trait bonuses are cumulative and add onto the base stats for the system described after the System Importance Table. No statistic may be higher than 12 and Census, Productivity and Morale stats may not exceed the Capacity. Any result that increases a statistic that is already at its maximum is re-rolled. If all stats are at their maximum, stop rolling and continue to the next system. Unimportant systems roll once, Minor systems roll twice, Major systems roll thrice.

Exhibit A: System Generation Tables

System Importance Table (Roll 2d6)

ResultSystem ImportanceColony Size
2-3Minor OutpostUnimportant System
4-5OutpostUnimportant System
6-8Minor ColonyMinor System
9-10ColonyMinor System
11-12Major ColonyMajor System

(Note: Minor systems are more common than unimportant systems, because truly unimportant systems are not even on the map)

Base System Statistics Table

Colony SizeCensusMoraleRAWProductivityCapacity
Minor Outpost11102
Minor Colony32216
Major Colony763310

Jump Lanes Table (Roll d6)

ResultJump Lanes

-1 Unimportant System
+1 Major System

Jump Lane Position Table (Roll d6)

ResultJump Lane Position
1Link to system one ring up
2-4Link to system in own ring
5+Create a system in the next ring and link to it

(Note: last ring systems subtract one Jump Lane when a 5+ is rolled and a system is not created)

Special Traits Table (Roll 2d6)

ResultSpecial Traits
1 or lessNo Specials
2Fair Government (Morale +1)
3-5Rich in Rare Metals (RAW +1)
6Fair Climate (Productivity +1)
7Rich in Precious Minerals (RAW +2)
8Expanded Industry (Productivity +2)
9Expanded Population (Census +1, Morale +1)
10-11Fair Biosphere (Census +1, Capacity +2)
12Special Resources +1 (if not used then roll twice)
13+Re-roll Twice

Minor Outpost -2
Outpost -1
Colony +1
Major Colony +2

Jump Lane Class Table (Roll d6)

ResultJump Lane Class
2 or lessRestricted Lane
3-4Minor Lane
5+Major Lane

Unimportant -1
Major +1
Homeworld +2

Player Starting Locations

Players will now choose a system in the last ring to become their homeworld. Divide the number of systems in the last ring by the number of players in the game, drop any fraction. This is how far each player homeworld must be from the next player homeworld. It does not matter if the systems are connected by jump lanes or not, for this calculation only consider all of the last ring systems to be 1 system away from their clockwise and counter-clockwise neighbors. If this minimum distance is one, then each player’s homeworld can be the clockwise or counter-clockwise neighbor of another player’s homeworld, otherwise the homeworlds must be spaced out along the last ring of systems by the minimum distance.

Any system selected to be a player’s homeworld automatically receives the homeworld base stats and applies any Special Traits rolled up during system generation to improve that system. Remember that Special Traits cannot raise a statistic above 12. Players will pick homeworlds in order of highest to lowest on a roll of 2d6. Each player must select a system that will not prevent any of the remaining players from being able to legally select a homeworld.

If you are using the random map with the 2.4.1 Starting from Scratch scenario use these rules to pick the homeworlds and ignore the more generic rules in that section. Follow the rest of the 2.4.1 Starting from Scratch scenario setup.

Finishing Touches

When homeworlds have been determined, there is a final step. You must determine the quality of the jump lanes. Roll on Jump Lane Class table for every jump lane on the map; apply the modifiers for both systems the jump lane connects.

The galaxy is now complete. Now you must determine your scenario.


The Income Phase is where the Empire's revenues are calculated, expenses subtracted and profits are added to the point pools for spending during 3.2 Turn Orders Phase.

Income for the Turn is Calculated

The following formula is used to calculate income:
Total Domestic Product + Trade/Misc. Income - Maintenance/Misc. Costs = Income

Add this Income value to the player's Point Pool. The amount of points in the Point Pool are available for the player to use in this turn's Turn Orders Phase.

Calculating Total Domestic Product

Each system or planet in your empire can only use up to its Census worth in Productivity to generate output. For example, a system with a Census of 4 could only make use of up to 4 Productivity at one time. Additional Productivity would go unused. The number of Productivity actually being used in a system is its Utilized Productivity.

The output of each planet is calculated by multiplying the Utilized Productivity by the planet's RAW. The output of all planets is added together to calculate the Total Domestic Product in economic points.

Example: Earth has a Census of 10, a Productivity of 12 and a RAW of 4. Earth's output is 40 points. If Earth and Wolf were the only two systems in this human power and Wolf's output was 12, then the power would produce a Total Domestic Product of 52 economic points.

Calculating Commerce Income

Trade Fleets generate an income equal to 10% of the output of the systems on its route (rounded down). Obviously, only Trade Fleets that survived until this phase will contribute to this turn's income and only for those systems it successfully visited on its route last 3.5 Movement Phase.

Example: A fleet is assigned the Earth-Wolf-Proxima Centauri route, the total output for the three systems is 55 economic points, and so the fleet generates 5 economic points per turn.

Two fleets from the same player cannot be assigned to the same route without trade saturation. For this purpose, 10% represents the total the system can contribute to trade for the one player. If another power is allowed to trade there (with a proper treaty), they will also be able to generate income at the 10% level as well. Add up the income from all Trade Fleets owned by your empire to determine your Commerce Income.

Calculating Maintenance Cost

Maintenance cost for ships, ground units, bases and everything else you can build are provided in the source materials. All costs are either given as a number of points such as 1 or in fractional notation such as 2/4. The maintenance cost of 2/4 means 2 economic points to support a group of up to 4 units. The maintenance costs are evaluated for each specific class of unit in service and not by hull type.

For instance, if you have a light cruiser class called the "Atlantic" class with a maintenance cost 2/4, you must first determine how many "Atlantics" that are in active service. If you have 22 "Atlantics", then the maintenance cost would be 12 economic points for these units. Once you've placed your 25th "Atlantic" into service, the cost will jump to 14 economic points, as any fraction of 4 units still costs 2 economic points to support. However, if you begin building a new light cruiser class, the "Pacific", these units will be tracked separately and the first four "Pacifics" will cost 2 economic points to maintain, regardless of the number of "Atlantics" in service.

This type of maintenance cost encourages producing units in groups and using only those classes of units you really need. It discourages using several different classes of destroyer, for instance, because you're more likely to suffer from additional maintenance costs from having more partial groupings of units that you still must pay full price for.

There is also a maintenance cost for Intel points at a rate of 1 economic point per 10 Intel points or any fraction of 10 Intel points. Add up all Intel points in your empire before calculating the cost for all of them. Source materials can change this maintenance rate for some or all races, but 1 for 10 is the default.

At various times units can be in special states that can halve or eliminate their maintenance costs, such as being placed into a Reserve status or Mothballed (see 3.7.9 Deactivations and Activations). Calculate the maintenance costs for units in different states independently. If you have, for instance, 2 Active light cruisers, 4 Reserve light cruisers and 1 Inactive light cruiser in each of two different shipyards, your maintenance cost is 2 for the Actives, 1 for the Reserves and 0 for the mothballs, but each shipyards construction capacity is reduced by 2 each (see 3.7.9 Deactivations and Activations for more details).

The paying of maintenance costs is not optional. If a player is unable to pay for the maintenance of all units, the player must choose which units will be immediately removed from play. The units are considered destroyed for all purposes.

Miscellaneous Income or Expense

Occasionally, a random event or one-time payment of economic points may occur that affects a player's income for the turn. Add or subtract these one-time items from your Total Domestic Product as appropriate.

Updating the Point Pool

Once you know the Total Domestic Product, Commerce Income, Maintenance Costs, and all miscellaneous items, you can determine your Income. Add your Income to your current point pool to determine the economic points that you have available to spend during your 3.2 Turn Orders Phase. You may not spend more economic points than what you have in your point pool. Income or costs that accumulate in this turn from random events or other causes are applied in next turn's 3.1 Income Phase as a 3.1.5 Miscellaneous Income or Expense item.

Turn Orders Phase

Sample Turn Orders
Campaign Year 3024.5
Empire: Lorans

Income Phase
Starting Point Pool: 16
System Income: 89
Commerce Income: 7
Miscellaneous Income: 0
Miscellaneous Expense: 0
Maintenance Expense: 32
Current Point Pool: 80
Turn Orders
Launch an Intel: Espioniage - Tech mission into Kamchatka from Manchuria (13 Intel assigned)

Offer Non-Aggression Pact to Tirelons (2 Intel assigned)

Move Fleet #7 & #10 from Manchuria to Kamchatka. The Fleets are ordered be begin Anti-Troop Bombardment this turn.

Purchase 3 Heavy Carrier II @ Loran (21 points)

Purchase 2 Destroyer III @ Loran (8 points)

Continue construction of Starbase I @ Manchuria [20/30 completed] (10 points)

Purchase 15 Intel (15 points)

Tech Investment: 20 (20 points)

Ending Point Pool: 6
Ready for Next Turn

Even if you are playing with a CM, it is necessary for the player to write out all their orders for the turn. This includes everything the player does in a turn, such as spending on new ship construction, investment in technology, fleet movement, or launching a ground assault. Writing your turn orders is done before resolving anything else in the turn.

All recorded orders must be performed if they are legal when they are performed. Any order that is illegal at the time it is to be performed will not be performed and is cancelled. You may record orders that are illegal during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase that are later performed, because the events of the turn made them legal orders. Orders cannot be selectively performed, as all orders recorded will be completed, so long as they are legal at the time they are to be performed.


Players can spend economic points to invest in technology or to improve a system's Productivity. With optional rules there may also be other infrastructure items you can improve, such as jump lanes. Record all of your investments in economic points on your Turn Orders Sheet. The benefits of your investments are resolved in later phases.

Diplomatic Actions and Intel Missions

Players record the number of Intel points they are purchasing this turn. Add up your newly purchased Intel points with all of the Intel points in your empire. You can spend these Intel points on Diplomatic actions and Intel missions.

Diplomatic actions are recorded in the Intel Missions area. The signing of treaties should specify the treaty name. Breaking a treaty should mention its name and how many Intel points are being spent. Intel missions have a target system, a staging system, and a mission. You record all of these as well as how many points you are spending on the mission. The amount of Intel points spent on all Intel missions staging from a system cannot exceed the system's Census rating.

Once you've bought and spent your Intel points for the turn, you assign the remaining Intel points to the systems in your empire or place them in the Military Intel pool. You can only assign as many Intel points to a system as its Census rating. Any Intel points that cannot be or are not assigned to a system are placed in the Military Intel Pool, which has no size limit.

Record Movement Orders

Players detail their movement orders for ships, ground units, fighters or any other mobile units. Trade Fleets have their routes assigned or reassigned in the movement orders area. Although you record all your movement orders, the events of the Movement phase and Combat Phase could result in some or all of the order being impossible to obey. In such cases, the orders will be canceled at the point where the ordered movement becomes impossible.

Example: A Transport Fleet with an Infantry division has been ordered to jump from Earth to Proxima Centauri (which is controlled by an allied power) and then jump to Wolf. The Infantry Division is then to debark onto Wolf. Since the route is composed of all major jump lanes under the control of the power or allied power and ground movement comes after Fleet Movement, the entire movement would be legal. However, the allied power broke the alliance in the Intel Phase. The movement order is now illegal, as the Transport Fleet cannot move through Proxima Centauri, as an encounter will be generated. The Transport Fleet stops in Proxima Centauri and the Infantry division's debarkation order is cancelled. The Player controlling the Transport Fleet cannot choose to cancel the entire movement order and is forced to move the Transport Fleet into Proxima Centauri.

Purchasing, Repairing, and Activating/Deactivating Units

Players record purchases, repairs and activations/deactivations of various units along with where they are built, repaired or activated/deactivated (see 3.7.1 Construction Completion Phase). Costs for all units (including repair costs) are listed in the source materials. These actions are completed in the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase but the economic points are subtracted from the Point Pool during the 3.2 Turns Orders Phase. Should events of the turn(s) prevent their completion the economic points are still spent and lost. Any construction that takesmore than one campaign Turn to complete may be canceled in a later Turn Orders Phase and 50% of the amount of points already spent is refunded (see 3.7.13 Scrapping).

A power may only purchase ships that have an in service date less than the starting year plus the power's tech level. A power may only purchase units of their own racial origin or generic units, listed in the source materials.

CM's Note: Like any other rule, you can make exceptions to what units an empire is allowed to build, but particular care should be taken when playing with technologies and mixing different race's units. It can easily get out of hand, creating a situation where power gamers will thrive.

Tech Phase

It is important for any power to maintain an ample level of technological investment or risk falling behind a neighbor. On the same note, a player who keeps their investment high will possibly surpass their neighbors and outclass them in the next battle.

Investing in Technology

Players increase their tech investment pools by the amount of economic points they paid from the point pool to their tech investment pool during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase.

Tech Advancement

Tech is evaluated annually (every 12 turns), so players will be making their first tech advancement checks in the Tech Phase of turn 12. When it is time to check for tech advancement, players roll a d100 and compare the roll to the tech investment pool, as a percentage of the required tech investment.

To calculate the required investment, take 50% (round up) of the total domestic product (found at the top of your asset sheet). The player then divides the amount of points in the tech investment pool by the required tech investment, rounding all fractions down, to determine their percentage chance of earning a tech advancement. If you roll less than or equal to the percentage of the required investment that you actually invested in tech investment pool, then your empire will have successfully advanced its technology, increasing its Tech Year by 1. You will increase your tech by 1 point and reset your tech investment pool to 0.

Example: An empire with a total domestic product of 214 in the Tech Phase of turn 12 will have a tech investment requirement of 107. A player, that invests 52 in tech over the 12-turn cycle, divides that number by the required total, rounding all fractions down (52 / 107 = 48%). The player will need to roll a 48 or less on the d100 to make a tech advance. If a player invests the entire amount needed (100%), then they make an automatic tech advance.

If the empire makes their tech advance, and their Tech Year was 3000 at the beginning of the turn, then the Tech Year will be increased to 3001.

Failed Tech Advancement

If a player fails to achieve a tech advancement in the current 12 turn cycle, the amount of economic points invested in tech is carried over into the next 12-turn cycle, giving the player a head-start on their tech investment.

Overpaying Tech Investments

Some players may want to speed up their research and development activities by giving the scientific community incentives to increase their efficiency. A player can invest as much as 200% of the required tech investment to potentially make a second tech advancement in the same 12-turn cycle. The amount of overpayment beyond the required tech investment is used to calculate the odds of a second tech advancement in addition to the first, automatic tech advancement.

However, the chance for the second advancement is halved, resulting in a maximum chance of 50% for a second tech advancement if you paid 200% of the required tech investment. Additionally, unlike in normal tech investment, all overpayment is lost after making the check for a second tech advance and does not carry over into the next 12-turn cycle.

Example: A player overspends, investing 30 points into the tech investment pool, while their required tech investment was only 22. The first tech advancement is automatic, as the first 22 points will go to pay for the required 100% chance for the first tech advancement. There are 8 points of overpayment. Divide this remainder (8) by required tech investment (22) and halve the result (8 / 22 / 2 = 18%) The player will need to roll an 18 or less on a d100 to achieve a second tech advance. If successful, add two (2) to the power's Tech Year, otherwise add only one (1) for the automatic advancement. The tech investment pool is reset to zero (0) regardless of the outcome of the second advancement. In this example, If the player had spent 44 or more points on tech, he or she would have the maximum allowed 50% chance to achieve a second tech advancement. No amount of additional payment over 44 would increase the chances for a second tech advancement.

Effects of Tech Advancement

Each time that a tech advancement is made, the Tech Year of the empire is increased by one (1). The VBAM campaign system assumes that all technological improvements are available in a chronological order, unless otherwise contradicted by your source materials. This means that each new unit type or technology has an in-service date that lets the player know when that item will become available. As an empire's Tech Year increases as the result of tech investment, these new technologies will become available.

As an alternative option for settings where in-service dates are unavailable, tech advancements should instead give players a cumulative 25% tech advancement chance of developing a new unit or technology. If this option is used, players should roll a d100 after each successful tech advance. If the result is equal to or less than the cumulative tech advancement chance, then the player has made a breakthrough and one new unit or technology becomes available.

CM's Note: A Campaign Moderator is needed to handle tech in a more realistic fashion. Players may wish to trade tech or work off of real tech trees that will require a CM's attention. For instance, if a player wanted to develop a different weapon to mount on his light cruiser, this would require special rules, construction costs and probably unique unit stats. Remember that technology advancement does not only focus on developing new vessels. In a CM game, you may want to give them a stronger ground unit or perhaps allow them to increase the carrying capacity of a planet. Establish a cost for prototype ships, odd variants and other investment ventures that fit your campaign. This kind of flexibility can make a campaign very interesting, but a CM is cautioned to keep changes minor and reasonable or risk upsetting the balance.

Accelerated Tech Advancement

Optional Rule [Click]

For some campaigns, it is beneficial to accelerate the rate at which players can earn tech advancements. This is especially true when playing in an online, play-by-email campaign where the 12-turn research cycle can mean that players will not see any tech advancement for months of real world game time.

Under the Accelerated Tech Advancement optional rule, tech is evaluated during the Tech Phase of the sixth and twelfth turns of each game year. This tech advancement check is conducted in the same manner as described in 3.3 Tech Phase. There remains a maximum chance of two tech advancements per campaign year, with the second having the same maximum 50% chance of success as outlined in the standard rules. If a player makes a tech advancement on turn six, he or she will then be attempting for their second tech advancement for the campaign year on turn twelve. This limitation keeps tech advancement in check and prevents abuse by players.

If a tech advancement is earned during the Tech Phase of the sixth turn of the campaign year, subtract the empire's tech advancement requirement from the amount of points currently in its tech investment pool. The amount of tech investment in the pool cannot be reduced below zero. This reduction in the amount of tech investment in the pool covers the 'cost' of the mid-year tech advancement. The player can then use any remaining tech investment points in the pool, plus any further investment into tech on subsequent turns, to go towards the second possible tech advancement for the campaign year.

Should the player succeed in making BOTH of his possible tech advancements in turn six, then no more tech advancement will be possible for the remainder of the campaign year and no roll will be performed on turn twelve. In this situation, any tech investment paid in on turns seven through twelve are not lost but will instead be carried over into the next year of the campaign.

If a player does not achieve a tech advancement in turn six, the current tech investment pool is unaffected and all previous tech investment will go towards the later turn twelve tech evaluation. Since the player did not earn a tech advancement on turn six, the turn twelve tech advancement check will be conducted exactly as per the standard rules provided in CG 3.3 Tech Phase.

Example 1: An empire has a total domestic product of 134 economic points and a base tech advancement percentage of 50%. As of the Turn Orders Phase of turn six, the empire has paid in 85 points of tech investment into its tech investment pool. During the Tech Phase of turn six, an evaluation is made to determine if the empire will receive its tech advancement. 134 times 50% equals 67; the empire's current tech investment is 85, so it is guaranteed to make its first tech advancement for the year. The empire's Tech Year is increased by 1 as a result of the tech advance and 67 points of tech investment are subtracted from the 85 currently in the tech investment pool, leaving 18 points remaining in the pool.

On turn twelve, during the Tech Phase, the second (and final) tech evaluation for the campaign year is performed. Since turn six, the empire has invested a further 21 points of tech investment, increasing the pool's balance from 18 to 39. Total domestic product remains unchanged. To determine the chance for the second tech advancement succeeding, divide 39 by 67 and then divide the result by 2. The result is 29%. The empire rolls d100, but the die result is '97'; the tech advancement attempt has failed. The tech investment pool is reduced to zero and the empire is now ready to begin investing for future tech evaluations.

Example 2: An empire has a total domestic product of 134 economic points and a base tech advancement percentage of 50%. As of the Turn Orders Phase of turn six, the empire has paid in 38 points of tech investment into its tech investment pool. During the Tech Phase of turn six, an evaluation is made to determine if the empire will receive a tech advancement. 134 times 50% equals 67; the empire's current tech investment is 38, yielding an advancement chance of 56%. The empire rolls d100, but the die result is a '97'; the tech advancement attempt has failed. The amount of tech investment points remains unchanged and is saved to go towards the turn twelve tech evaluation.

On turn twelve, during the Tech Phase, the second (and final) tech evaluation for the campaign year is performed. Since turn six, the empire has invested a further 40 points of tech investment, increasing the pool's balance from 38 to 78. Total domestic product remains unchanged. The chance of earning the first tech advancement is automatic, as the empire has paid an amount greater than or equal to 67 into tech investment. 67 points are subtracted from the tech investment pool, reducing its total to 11.

After this first, automatic success, the empire must determine the chance that the second tech advancement will succeed. Divide 11 by 67 and then divide the result by 2. The result is 8%. The empire rolls d100, and the die result is '01'; the tech advancement attempt has succeeded! The empire gains a second tech advancement and the tech investment pool is reduced to zero. The empire is now ready to begin investing for future tech evaluations.

Example 3: An empire has a total domestic product of 134 economic points and a base tech advancement percentage of 50%. As of the Turn Orders Phase of turn six, the empire has paid in 12 points of tech investment into its tech investment pool. During the Tech Phase of turn six, an evaluation is made to determine if the empire will receive a tech advancement. 134 times 50% equals 67; the empire's current tech investment is 12, yielding an advancement chance of 17%. The empire rolls d100, but the die result is a '25'; the tech advancement attempt has failed. The amount of tech investment points remains unchanged and is saved to go towards the turn twelve tech evaluation.

On turn twelve, during the Tech Phase, the second (and final) tech evaluation for the campaign year is performed. Since turn six, the empire has invested a further 9 points of tech investment, increasing the pool's balance from 12 to 21. Total domestic product remains unchanged. The chance of earning the first tech advancement is now 31%. The empire rolls d100, and the die result is '57'; the tech advancement attempt has failed! The empire does not receive a tech advancement and there are no further attempts to resolve. The current tech investment pool is left unchanged and the points currently in the pool carry over into the next campaign year and will count towards future tech evaluations.

Intel Phase

The Intel phase includes Diplomatic as well as Intelligence activities, since some diplomatic actions can require the use of Intel points. Also, the Diplomatic status of two powers will affect the difficulties for completing some Intel missions.

Intel Points

An Intel Point is an abstract unit that represents the potential use of intelligence. This is the standard unit in regards to using Intel in VBAM. Intel points are used for both offensive (Intel Missions and Diplomatic Actions) and defensive purposes. Intel Points are purchased, used and deployed for defensive use at your systems, or to the Military Intel Pool for military use. Intel points by default cost 1 economic point to make and 1 economic point per 10 Intel points to maintain, but source materials can alter this to suit the universe. The maximum number of Intel points per system is limited by the Census.


Diplomacy lies within the Intel phase as diplomatic work often ends up involving and assisting intelligence work. The most important part of diplomacy is establishing the level of relations you wish to have with other powers.

There are a variety of diplomatic states two powers can have. But the most important status is having established contact or not. You cannot engage in any diplomatic relations with or launch Intel missions against a power with which you have not established contact.

Diplomatic Relations

In the Start from Scratch or Small Empire scenarios, all powers start without contact with any other power. Establishing contact with another power requires that the player can trace a path of systems to a system owned by the power they wish to contact. This path can only contain systems explored and claimed by the player's empire, a power the player already has established relations with and finally the system owned by the power the player wishes to contact. Once contact has been established, you may then establish relations with the new power or perform other diplomatic actions or Intel missions.

Normal Relations

Once either player makes contact, relations are established at the normal diplomatic state. Normal relations do not recognize a power's boundaries and you can freely move ships into or out of systems controlled by the other power. Your Forces may not, however, generate any encounter scenarios in or invade systems controlled by the other power. There are two exceptions to this rule. If any of your Forces in a system are attacked by a power at normal relations with you, all of your Forces in that system may generate scenarios or attack that power's Forces in that system for this campaign turn. If you previously controlled or currently control a system, your military actions against powers at normal relations in those systems are unrestricted (unless a system is or was part of another power's recognized borders after the last time you owned it).

Diplomatic States

Some diplomatic states have prerequisites. All treaties require the consent of the powers involved (all powers in question need to sign the treaty as a 3.4.4 Diplomatic Action). Once all powers have signed the treaty, it will be in effect the next turn. Withdrawing from a treaty can be done either unilaterally or with the consent of the other powers involved. Other kinds of diplomatic actions, called declarations, can be made without the consent of other powers. But declarations sometimes have other costs and are not automatically successful.

The following is a list of treaties that can be signed and declarations that can be made. The number in parentheses is used when attempting to break that kind of treaty and is detailed in the next section.

Non-Aggression Treaty (60): This treaty calls for the mutual agreement not to destroy the other government's assets in acknowledgement that they won't destroy yours. Neither side is allowed to move units through the systems of the other. Should your units end up in the system of a Non-Aggression Treaty (NAT) partner, they can be interned by that NAT partner or allowed to leave at the soonest possible time. If they are interned, the maintenance costs are covered by the interning nation. Should you encounter the units of a NAT partner in an uncontrolled, contested or third party controlled systems, you may not generate encounter scenarios or invade/land in a system containing their units.

Peace Treaty (10): This is a step beyond a non-aggression treaty and requires a non-aggression treaty. The Peace Treaty calls for non-aggression toward the other's assets and an establishment of a mutual border. This recognizes the systems of that power and allows both powers to move non-military units through the other's systems. The most important feature of a Peace Treaty is that it is much harder to withdraw from without the consent of the other power than a Non-Aggression Treaty. Non-military units include all of the "fleets" trade, colony and transport. Units of a power with which you have a Peace Treaty are considered "friendly" for all purposes.

Trade Treaty (50): This treaty makes it possible for Trade Fleets of one power to visit systems of another power for the purpose of trade. This cannot normally be done without a trade treaty between the powers. The treaty is reciprocal allowing all powers' Trade Fleets to visit any other power's systems in the treaty. A Non-Aggression Treaty must be in place for a trade treaty to be signed.

Mutual Defense Treaty (40): This is not only an agreement to acknowledge each other; it actually includes an agreement to go to the other's defense if they are attacked. It requires that a Peace Treaty already be in place. The Mutual Defense Treaty also allows your military ships to travel in the systems of the other powers in the treaty, but does not allow you to move ground forces to systems of other powers in the treaty and vice versa.

Alliance Treaty (-20): The Alliance Treaty is the final step in cooperation between powers and requires a Mutual Defense Treaty with all other Alliance members. It accounts for peace, mutual defense, trade and the ability for the powers to work together in greater capacity. A declaration of war or hostilities against one power automatically results in a declaration of war or hostilities on all other alliance members. All allied powers must agree on any Armistice signed that normalizes relations with a power for those alliance members. To sign a separate Armistice, a power must first withdraw from or break the Alliance Treaty. All current members must unanimously agree to the inclusion of a new Alliance member. A power may only join one alliance at a time. A declaration of war by a member of the alliance on another power does not, however, result in an automatic declaration of war by the rest of the alliance members. However, every alliance member is required to attempt a declaration of war each turn until they succeed or an Armistice is signed that ends the conflict. Other members of the alliance can choose to spend Intel Points to increase the chance of a successful declaration of war by another alliance member. (Note: This can result in alliance members being dragged into a war they don't want by their alliance partners... beware unwanted foreign entanglements).

Declaration of Hostilities (20): This is a statement that gets the gloves off of ships in your government towards that power. The units of the power you have declared hostilities with and the units of a power that has declared hostilities on you are considered hostile. This means that your ships can cross the border, seize cargo and do all things hostile short of conquest of systems. A Declaration of Hostilities allows for the destruction of bases or the bombardment of colonies, but does not allow for the commitment of ground troops for the invasion of any system. This does permit a power to destroy a colony and then colonize the system. The power you declare hostilities against automatically gets the benefits of having declared hostilities on you as well. Signing an Armistice will restore normal relations.

Declaration of War (-20): This is a formal and clear declaration of war against another power. A state of war will exist until one such power is conquered or peace breaks out. The state of war includes all the effects of a Declaration of Hostilities, plus it allows you to commit ground troops. Powers you declared war against automatically get the benefits of having declared war on you as well. Signing an Armistice will restore normal relations. Special rules exist in the optional rules section if you choose to play with a wartime economy (see 4.1 Wartime Economics).

Armistice Treaty (N/A): This treaty requires that a Declaration of Hostilities or Declaration of War exists between the powers. Its only function is to end the Declarations of Hostilities or War between all powers involved in the Armistice. An Armistice must be approved and signed by all parties in an Alliance. By its very nature, an Armistice is not broken as it only serves to halt hostilities and doesn't put into place any other treaty. It restores Normal Relations between the powers that have signed the Armistice.

Treaty of Co-Belligerence (20): A unique situation must exist in order for two or more parties to enter into this form of treaty. All signing powers must at the very least have a Non-Aggression Pact with all other involved powers. At the signing of the treaty, all parties must agree upon a mutual enemy or, in rare instances, enemies with whom all parties are at war. This allows the signers of the treaty to operate together as if they were members of an Alliance in enemy territory. This does not allow for the additional privileges of other treaties unless they are already in place. The treaty is nullified once the conflict is resolved.

CM's Note: Have fun, this is where the role-playing aspects of the games come out. You will find that various diplomats and personalities from the governments will have their own unique diplomatic styles. Feel free to use the treaties here or go with your own that are more specific to the situation. Perhaps the players would like to issue a "Letter of Marque" to a local raider faction or some other elaborate agreement that requires a CM.

Diplomatic Actions

There are three basic diplomatic actions: signing, withdrawing/breaking and declaring. Signing is a free action. You may sign any treaty you wish with no cost and no chance of failure. Unless the other members of the treaty allow a power to withdraw, it can only end the treaty by breaking it. This action has a chance of failure dependant on the type of treaty, various other factors, and Intel points spent. Declaring also requires a check for success. It may be hard to persuade your own internal groups to go along with the declaration. So, dependent on circumstances and Intel points spent, a declaration could fail.

You cannot break or withdraw from a treaty that is serving as a prerequisite for another treaty. You must first break or withdraw from all treaties on which it depends. The base percentage chance to break or withdraw from a treaty is listed in parenthesis next to the treaty in Diplomatic States. The modifiers shown in Exhibit B: Diplomatic Action Modifiers apply only if the condition stated occurred or existed while the treaty was in effect. Never apply a penalty to breaking a treaty that is a result of having the treaty you are trying to break. That effect is already factored into the base difficulty.

Non-cumulative bonuses or penalties do not stack with other non-cumulative bonuses or penalties. Always use the highest applicable bonus AND penalty to a roll. Do not apply a penalty for a treaty you're taking action against. For example, if you are trying to break a Trade Treaty with an Alliance Partner you receive a –50% penalty to the attempt, but if you try and break the Alliance Treaty itself (which applies to all Alliance partners) you only receive a –30% penalty for your current Mutual Defense Treaty or Treaties.

Roll a d100 under the percentage chance to succeed in all cases.

Exhibit B: Diplomatic Action Modifiers

Modifiers to Breaking a Treaty

• Power implicated in successful sabotage/insurgency mission +100%*
• Power has declared hostilities/war on a mutual defense treaty member +90% (Non-cumulative)
• Power was caught running an insurgency mission on one of your systems +80%*
• Power has generated an encounter scenario against your ships +75%*
• Power was caught running a sabotage mission on one of your systems +60%*
• Power has declared hostilities/war on a peace treaty member +50% (Non-cumulative)
• Power was caught running an espionage mission on one of your systems +25%*
• Power has broken a treaty with you +25% per treaty*
• Successfully withdrawn or broken a treaty with power +10%*
• Per Intel Point spent +5%
• Last attempt to break a treaty with power failed -10%
• Power has a Peace Treaty with you -20% (Non-cumulative)
• Power is a Mutual Defense Treaty partner -30% (Non-cumulative)
• Power is an Alliance partner -50% (Non-cumulative)

A successful Declaration of Hostilities or War against a power will break all existing treaties and agreements immediately. All modifiers apply if they occurred since the last successful diplomatic action.

Modifiers to Declaring Hostilities/War
• Power Implicated in successful sabotage/insurgency mission +50%*
• Power has generated an encounter scenario against your ships +40%*
• Power was caught running an insurgency mission on one of your systems +35%*
• Power has declared war on a mutual defense treaty member +30% (Non-cumulative)
• Power is currently under a Declaration of Hostilities +25% (Non-cumulative)
• Power was caught running a sabotage mission on one of your systems +25%*
• Power has broken a treaty with you +10% per treaty*
• Power was caught running an espionage mission on one of your systems +10%*
• Power has declared hostilities/war on a peace treaty member +10% (Non-cumulative)
• Successfully withdrawn from an agreement or broken a treaty with power +5% per treaty *
• Per Intel Point spent +5%
• Power has a Trade Agreement with you -10% (Non-cumulative)
• Power has a Non-Aggression Treaty with you -20% (Non-cumulative)
• Last attempt to break a treaty with power or declare against a power failed -25%
• Power has a Peace Treaty with you -40% (Non-cumulative)
• Power has a Mutual Defense Treaty with you -60% (Non-cumulative)
• Power has an Alliance Treaty with you: Impossible

* These modifiers are used as listed if action occurred last turn and are reduced by 10% per each turn thereafter until they reach 0%.

Non-Player Entities

Optional Rule [Click]

Non-player entities (NPEs) are empires within a campaign whose diplomatic policies are not directly controlled by a human player. NPEs use a special set of rules in order to create a "simulated opponent" that players (and NPEs) can interact with during the course of the campaign. Actual operation of a NPE requires some degree of human interaction, usually on the part of the CM, but all of the major galaxy-shaping decisions the NPE will make are outside of any player's direct control.

At the heart of the VBAM NPE rules is the AIX Species Reaction System, a device that distills the psychology of the empire into three core values. Using these AIX statistics the NPE conducts diplomacy with other empires. Everything from diplomatic relationships, hostilities checks, treaty acceptance, and reactions to opposing empire actions are covered as part of these rules.

When would you want to use the NPE rules in your campaign? There are many situations in which it would be advantageous to take advantage of these rules. NPEs are extraordinarily valuable for players that would like to play a solo-campaign with their human-controlled faction as the only player empire in the campaign. Activation of new NPEs will provide the solo-campaign player with opposing empires that they can befriend or conquer as they see fit. Given how the NPE system works, players may begin to see a sly guile driving the actions of their NPE opponents – something that is rare to encounter in a simple artificial intelligence such as this!

NPEs can also be of major assistance to CMs who wish to add additional empires to their campaign but lack available players to fill these new positions. The CM could just as easily add these extra powers and run them himself, but the NPE rules provide a mechanism for handling diplomacy in an unbiased manner. This can avoid arguments over CM favoritism and leave the CM or an appointed neutral power to manage the NPEs fleets and other assets in a manner commensurate with its diplomatic intentions.

The AIX Species Reaction System

These rules utilize the AIX Species Reaction System (AIX for short) to simulate NPE interaction with players. This system is the core of the NPE diplomacy process and will influence nearly all of a NPE's diplomatic interactions with opposing empires.

Under the AIX system, the disposition of a power is measured by three distinct characteristics: Aggressiveness, Integrity, and Xenophobia.

Aggressiveness (AG)

This is a measure of the power's tendency to resort to violence to solve their problems. Powers with a high Aggressiveness are hostile and quick to go to war. Powers with a lower Aggressiveness are more pacifistic and will conversely be very reluctant to declare hostilities or war on another power. If drawn into a conflict, such a power will be quick to put an end to it as soon as they can.

Affects: Hostilities Check, Armistice Check

Integrity (IN)

This is a measure of the power's willingness or ability to honor their agreements. The higher a power's Integrity statistic, the more honorable they are. Powers with high Integrity are loath to break the treaties they sign, and will react poorly to other races that break treaties with them. Powers with low Integrity will assume a more laissez faire attitude towards politics. Treaties with these powers may not be worth the paper they are written on.

Affects: Breaking Treaties

Xenophobia (XE)

This is a measure of a power's attitude towards other alien empires. Powers with high Xenophobia openly dislike other alien species and will take every step possible to limit contact with outsiders. Powers with low Xenophobia tend to more xeno-friendly and will actively pursue relations with the empires they come in contact with.

Affects: Relationship, Offering Chance, Treaty Acceptance Chance

Apply AIX Values

Whenever a new NPE is activated (see 6.1.2 NPE Activation), the CM rolls d100 for each statistic (AG, IN, XE), assigning the result as the NPE's value in that area. Normally the range of values for each AIX statistic is 1 to 100, but values above or below this range are entirely valid and can be used without any negative effects.

Each of these three values is rated on a sliding scale with a neutral balancing point of 50. In other words, an AIX value of 50 in any given statistic is a completely neutral result showing no tendencies to either extreme. The further you get from this balancing point, the more extreme the reactions the NPE will demonstrate in its dealings with other powers.

Example: A new NPE is activated and the CM must now roll to determine its AIX statistics. The CM rolls d100 three times, assigning the rolls to AG, IT, and XE respectively.

CM's Note: For those that would like less randomness in the AIX statistics applied to new NPEs, an alternative method to the above is to assign the average of a 3d100 roll to each statistic instead of the normal 1d100.

AIX and Species

In general, there is very little variance between the AIX values of factions within a single species. Many species, humans among them, possess a wide range of differing and often divisive ideologies, but even the most diametrically opposed viewpoints are meaningless when compared to those of alien species. For this reason, generating AIX values for new NPEs that belong to a previously generated species is handled slightly different than normal.

For these NPEs, start by applying the existing AIX values for the selected species. Once this is done, roll 1d100 for each statistic, subtract 50, and then divide the result by 2. Round fractions to the nearest integer. Finally, add this value to the existing AIX statistic result. The maximum differential between any base species AIX value and that of an offshoot NPE is ±50.

Example: A new human NPE is activated in a campaign. In this campaign, humans have base AIX values of AG 50, IN 50, and XE 50. The CM rolls d100 – 50 for each statistic, divides by 2, and then adds the result to the human's base statistics. The CM rolls 20, 3, and 45. AG becomes (20 – 50) / 2 + 50 = 35; IN becomes (3 – 50) / 2 + 50 = 27; and XE becomes (45 – 50) / 2 + 50 = 48.

CM's Note: Some CMs may not like this species-based AIX limitation. This is especially true in universes where all of the players are humans of one variety or another. It can easily be ignored, but was added to help make aliens more alien than members of one's own species.

AIX and Unification

If a NPE signs a Unification treaty with another NPE power, the new amalgamated political entity will receive the average of both NPE's AIX statistics (round fractions naturally). The AIX values of both NPEs should be recorded and stored for future reference, in case they should be needed, but otherwise they will have no further affect on the political outlook of the resultant, Unified NPE power.

Implications of the AIX System

The values applied through the AIX system are used throughout the NPE diplomacy process and will be a major influence all of the NPE's interactions with other empires. Of the three statistics, AG and XE are perhaps the most important from the standpoint of foreign powers as they are the most used in NPE calculations. IN is still important, but less so than its two companion statistics.

There exist some combinations of extreme AIX stats that can lead to near archetypal alien personalities.

High XE: This empire will be a classic "stay at home" type that will have very little interest in dealing with outsiders. As long as a high XE NPE does not also have a high AG stat, they should be fairly non-violent and can be safely ignored by most players as far as exterior threats are concerned. In practice, it is very common for high XE powers to adopt a policy of Non-Intercourse with neighboring empires.

High AG: A belligerent NPE, high AG powers can be unpredictable and annoying, but their lack of overwhelming anti-alien sentiments will make peaceful dealings with the power possible. Just keep in mind that high AG powers can be hotheaded and prone to violent outbursts.

Low AG: Total peaceniks, those NPE empires that have a low AG statistic are an expansionistic warmonger's dream come true. Even after repeated attacks, this NPE will try to appease their enemies by offering the olive branch. Slow but steady erosion of their empire is likely to lead to the final collapse of low AG empires.

High AG, Low IN, High XE: The ultimate villain empire, this NPE is violently opposed to alien life and is more than happy to cleanse the galaxy of its presence. Unless by some miracle this NPE decides that it likes your empire, be prepared for a very brutal conflict. The treaties you sign with this power are likely not worth the paper they are written on, and it won't take much to persuade the NPE that your territories would make a good addition to their empire.

Low AG, Low XE: The antithesis of the previous archetype, an NPE with a combination of these two traits will be extremely friendly towards your empire. In fact, they are almost guaranteed to become good friends and staunch allies given enough time.

Despite the existence of these general archetypes, be prepared for some very interesting diplomatic situations when dealing with NPEs. The structured randomness of NPE diplomacy coupled with more realistic diplomatic limitations, including limits on how quickly NPEs will accept ever higher level treaties, will make diplomacy extremely interesting.

NPE Activation

NPE Activation can take place in one of several different ways. New NPEs can be activated by CM decision, exploration, or as the result of a random annual activation roll (see 2.2 Exploration Campaigns and Annual NPE Activation).

No matter how a NPE is activated, the following procedures are used to generate new NPE powers. This includes determining their tech level, empire size, starting assets, and AIX statistics.

NPE Activation Result

If the NPE activation roll is successful, statistics must be generated for the new NPE and its holdings. It is assumed that each newly discovered NPE is of a new, previously unknown alien species. This assumption is not always correct, given that many popular settings have the greater part of the galaxy inhabited strictly by humanity. If this is the case, it will be noted in the source materials. Some source books may even contain a NPE activation result chart to make NPE activation easier on CMs playing in the setting.

NPE Tech Level

The technology level of a NPE determines its inherent technical capabilities at first contact. There are ten separate, distinct technological levels into which a new NPE can fall. Interstellar powers are the most likely to be encountered, primarily because constantly contacting pre-spaceflight natives in a campaign could get old very fast! Roll on the NPE Result Table below to determine the technology level of the newly activated NPE.

Each of these technological levels is described in detail later in this section and carries with it a series of attributes that directly affect the new NPE's starting conditions.

CM's Note: In the case of Elder Interstellar (INT-5) and Ancient Interstellar (INT-6) powers, a CM should carefully consider whether or not to include such powers in their campaign. The introduction of one of these powers can make things very interesting for your players, but it can also destabilize an otherwise fun campaign and become a chore for the CM to administer.

NPE Result Table (Roll 2d10)
2-4Pre-Industrial (P-IND)
5Early Industrial (IND-1)
6Late Industrial (IND-2)
7-8Interplanetary (IND-3)
9-11Emerging Interstellar (INT-1)
12-14Developing Interstellar (INT-2)
15-16Mature Interstellar (INT-3)
17-18Expansive Interstellar (INT-4)
19Elder Interstellar (INT-5) or CM's Choice
20Ancient Interstellar (INT-6) or CM's Choice

Starting Condition Terms

Before delving into the full tech level descriptions, please take a moment to familiarize yourself with some of the associated terminology:

Starting Points

This is the number of economic points the NPE has available to purchase its starting assets. In each case, the starting point amount is figured relative to the NPE's beginning system income. For example, an INT-1 power is stated to begin with "2 x Total Domestic Product" in starting parts. If the final system output of the NPE's controlled systems was 87, then the INT-1 NPE would have 87 x 2 = 174 economic points to spend on its initial infrastructure.

Pre-Contact Exploration

This series of slash delimited values determine the extent of the NPE's pre-contact exploration. Each slashed value represents the percent of unexplored jump lanes the NPE has already explored for up to four jumps out from their home star system.

To illustrate how these values should be interpreted, let's use the pre-contact exploration value of an INT-3 power (100/50/25/0/0) as an example. The first value (100) is the percentage of explored jump lanes connecting to the NPE's home system. In this case, all (100%) of the unexplored jump lanes branching off from their home system have been mapped and start play fully explored.

The second slashed value (50) is the percentage of jump lanes explored in systems one jump away from the home system.

The third slashed value (25) is the percentage of jump lanes explored in systems two jumps away from the home system.

The fourth slashed value (0) is the percentage of jump lanes explored in systems three jumps away from the home system.

Finally, the fifth slashed value (0) is the percentage of jump lanes explored in systems four jumps away from the home system.

# of Colonized Systems

This is the number of colonized systems controlled by the NPE at contact. This is represented as a fixed number plus a random modifier based on the NPE's pre-contact exploration. A NPE that has performed more extensive pre-contact exploration will typically have more (or larger) colonies than those that have not journeyed very far from home.

Tech Advancement Requirement

A tech advancement requirement exists for all pre-Interstellar civilizations. This requirement is the amount of tech investment required to reach the next level of technological development. Tech development progresses linearly, from P-IND, to IND-1; from IND-1 to IND-2; from IND-2 to IND-3; and (finally) from IND-3 to INT-1. Unlike normal tech advancement, new technological levels are reached as soon as the last required point of tech investment is applied to the advance.

Tech Level Descriptions

Pre-Industrial (P-IND)
Starting Points: None
Pre-Contact Exploration: None
# of Colonized Systems: None
Tech Advancement Requirement: 2000
Overview: P-IND civilizations range in technological sophistication from primitive Stone Age savages to fairly advanced Iron Age city-states. P-IND civilizations are not sufficiently advanced to have a major impact on a VBAM campaign and their chance of achieving industrialization (let alone spaceflight!) during the course of the campaign is extremely remote.

P-IND powers are under several special restrictions due to their small size and technological naiveté. P-IND powers cannot experience population growth; they ignore all population growth checks. P-IND powers do not begin play with any Productivity and are incapable of purchasing Productivity improvements until they achieve IND-1. In fact, P-IND Census cannot even utilize Productivity unless enslaved (see 6.4.2 Enslavement).

Early Industrial (IND-1)
Starting Points: None
Pre-Contact Exploration: None
# of Colonized Systems: None
Tech Advancement Requirement: 1000
Overview: IND-1 civilizations have begun the process of industrialization, developing more advanced technologies for use in medicine, transportation, and war, among other applications. Although they have the beginnings of a heavy industrial society, IND-1 civilizations do not have the capacity to meaningfully combat the forces of more advanced powers.

As with P-IND powers, IND-1 powers begin play without any native Productivity. Unlike P-IND powers, IND-1 powers can build Productivity. This creates a situation in which the IND-1 power will remain largely stagnant until a random event or exterior power provides the economic points to purchase their first Productivity point, jump starting their economy.

Other than this limitation on starting Productivity, IND-1 powers are under no other special penalties.

Late Industrial (IND-2)
Starting Points: 1 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: Home System Only
# of Colonized Systems: None
Tech Advancement Requirement: 500
Overview: IND-2 civilizations have advanced their technology to the point that orbital spaceflight and unmanned solar missions are possible. Limitations in drive technology continue to limit the IND-2 power to their world of origin, but for the first time in their history they are capable of building and operating meaningful industrial infrastructure.

IND-2 powers begin play with half their normal starting Productivity (round down). IND-1 powers that advance to IND-2 through tech investment receive a single point of Productivity immediately upon reaching IND-2. This is in addition to any other Productivity they possessed prior to the tech advance.

IND-2 is the first stage of technological development in which a power is allowed to build pace units. IND-2 powers cannot build starships or civilian fleets (Colony, Transport, Trade), but they are allowed to build primitive bases, flights, mines, and satellites. These units should be extremely crude and primitive compared to those fielded by more advanced powers.

Pre-Interstellar NPE Space and Ground Unit Templates

Late Industrial (IND-2) Sample Units: Fixed Defenses
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFBasingspecial
StarbaseBase81/16322Supply (1)
Science StationBase31/22000Scout (1)
SDI SatelliteSatellite11/12101N/A
Missile SatelliteSatellite11/12110N/ABallistic
Basic MinefieldMine1/81/32100N/A

Late Industrial (IND-2) Sample Units: Flights
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFspecial
Space ShuttleST1/11/520*0*Explorer (1)
Heavy FighterHF1/21/8200
Medium FighterMF1/31/12100
Light FighterLF1/21/1610*0

Interplanetary (IND-3) Sample Units: Warships
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFCRCCBasingspecial
Heavy CruiserCA72/3642631
Scout CruiserECL83/2522520Scout (1)
Missile CruiserCL62/4541520Ballistic
Light CruiserCL52/4432521
GunboatGB11/1211121/20Attack Boat
Heavy CarrierCV62/3522534Carrier
Light CarrierCVE32/4212312Carrier
Heavy TenderCV62/3602530Tender (4)
TenderCVE32/5302420Tender (2)
Large FreighterFT52/4402320Supply (1/2)
Small FreighterFT21/6101210Supply (1/6)
Troop TransportFT31/4311211Assault

Interplanetary (IND-3) Sample Units: Fixed Defenses
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFBasingspecial
StarbaseBase122/210833Supply (1)
Laser SatelliteSatellite11/12111N/A
Missile SatelliteSatellite21/12111N/ABallistic
Basic MinefieldMine1/81/32100N/A

Interplanetary (IND-3) Sample Units: Flights
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFspecial
Space ShuttleST1/11/5300Explorer (1)
Heavy FighterHF1/21/8210
Medium FighterMF1/31/1211*0
Light FighterLF1/41/1610*1*
Breaching PodBP1/21/610*0*Direct Assault (1)
Assault ShuttleBP1/31/1220*0*Assault

Pre-Interstellar Ground Unit Templates
Unit NameCostMaintAttackDefenseD FactorAttritionspecial
IND-P MilitiaN/AN/A0001
IND-P Regulars11/31001
IND-1 MilitiaN/AN/A1001
IND-1 Regulars11/32101
IND-2 MilitiaN/AN/A1101
IND-2 Regulars11/311d22
IND-2 Marines21/221d21Marine
IND-3 MilitiaN/AN/A1101
IND-3 Regulars11/312d22
IND-3 Marines21/222d22Marine

Interplanetary (IND-3)
Starting Points: 2 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: Home System Only
# of Colonized Systems: None
Tech Advancement Requirement: 250
Overview: IND-3 is the age of interplanetary spaceflight. IND-3 civilizations are largely equivalent to later interstellar civilizations except that they have not yet developed a form of FTL propulsion. This limits them to their system of origin.

IND-3 powers should be treated as any other power, except that their units are incapable of making use of jump lanes. An IND-3 power will only be able to move between star systems once they reach INT-1.

Emerging Interstellar (INT-1)
Starting Points: 2 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 50/0/0/0/0
# of Colonized Systems: 1 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Investment Required: N/A
Overview: INT-1 powers are emerging civilizations that only recently discovered FTL travel. These powers have made their first cautious steps into the galaxy but have not yet founded true interstellar empires.

At INT-1, a power is first able to traverse the jump lanes that connect system to system in the universe. This is impossible prior to achieving this level of technological sophistication.

Developing Interstellar (INT-2)
Starting Points: 3 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 75/25/0/0/0
# of Colonized Systems: 2 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Advancement Required: N/A
Overview: INT-2 powers have survived the infancy of their entrance into space and have succeeded in founding a small yet thriving interstellar empire. The borders of this empire continue to expand with newly explored star system, giving more opportunities for profit – or peril.

Mature Interstellar (INT-3)
Starting Points: 4 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 100/50/25/0/0
# of Colonized Systems: 4 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Advancement Required: N/A
Overview: INT-3 powers have developed mature interstellar empires. Exploration programs, which reached their heights during the INT-1 and INT-2 stages of development, have slowed. In the absence of an ever-expanding frontier, the population of INT-3 powers has begun settling into the varied star systems explored thus far by their empire's scouting forces.

Expansive Interstellar (INT-4)
Starting Points: 5 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 100/75/50/25/0
# of Colonized Systems: 6 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Advancement Required: N/A
Overview: Civilizations that have reached INT-4 are extremely powerful and control a large swath of territory. INT-4 powers have been in space for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. In their travails they have explored far from their homeworld and possess colony worlds equal to or greater than their own homeworld.

Elder Interstellar (INT-5)
Starting Points: 6 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 100/100/75/50/25
# of Colonized Systems: 10 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Advancement Required: N/A
Overview: INT-5 powers are old and powerful, even more so than an INT-4 power. INT-5 powers are relatively rare, however. Once contacted, they can make almost unstoppable enemies or allies.

Ancient Interstellar (INT-6)
Starting Points: 8 x Total Domestic Product
Pre-Contact Exploration: 100/100/100/75/50
# of Colonized Systems: 15 + 1 per 3 systems explored (round down)
Tech Advancement Required: N/A
Overview: The final expression of interstellar power is embodied in INT-6 status. The empire controlled by a single INT-6 power is equal to those of half a dozen lesser powers combined. With that level of economic and military potency, few can stand against the fury of an INT-6 power bent on their destruction.

CM's Note: Again, INT-5 and INT-6 powers are potentially unbalancing and are included primarily for use in those campaigns where the player empires have become so powerful that smaller INT-1 or INT-2 powers are no longer a threat. Any newly activated INT-5 or INT-6 power is almost guaranteed to wield greater power than any one pre-existing player empire.

NPE Home System Location

If the NPE is at a technological level of INT-1 or higher, then the contact system is not the NPE home system but one of the NPE's colony worlds. The NPE home system is located a number of jumps away from the contact system equal to the NPE's Interstellar technology level (e.g., INT-1 homeworld is 1 jump away, INT-2 homeworld is 2 jumps away, and so on). If another unexplored jump lane into the system does not exist, increase the number of available jump lanes by one and use this new lane as the one connecting to the NPE home system. Note that, when the NPEs colonies are placed, all of the NPE's systems will receive a Productivity boost commensurate with its technological status (e.g., more advanced Interstellar powers will receive a greater Productivity bonus).

Performing Pre-Contact Exploration

All INT-1 and higher civilizations are considered to have performed some degree of exploration prior to contact. The amount of exploration is denoted under each technology level in a slashed notation that should be interpreted as follows:

First Value) Percentage of lanes explored in the homeworld system

Second Value) Percentage of lanes explored in systems 1 jump from the homeworld

Third Value) Percentage of lanes explored in systems 2 jumps from the homeworld

Fourth Value) Percentage of lanes explored in systems 3 jumps from the homeworld

Fifth Value) Percentage of lanes explored in systems 4 jumps from the homeworld

For each star system in a particular range bracket (e.g., 1 jump from homeworld, 2 jumps from homeworld, etc), sum the number of unexplored jump lanes and multiply times the appropriate exploration percentage described above, rounding all fractions naturally. The result is the number of unexplored jump lanes already explored by the NPE.

No exploration result that would put the NPE in contact with any existing power is allowed. Any such result should be re-rolled. In the case of static maps that are created before the game starts, the CM must ensure that the new empire's exploration does not conflict with existing inhabited or controlled star systems. By definition, each newly activated NPE power has had no contact with the existing milieu of campaign powers (although they may have contacted other powers).

After a new interstellar civilization's pre-contact exploration is determined, activation rolls should be made for each system explored by the NPE power (see 6.1.2 NPE Activation). If a new NPE is activated as a result of these rolls, the CM must determine the state of the relationship between the two NPEs and what treaties (if any) the two NPEs have entered to this point (see Resolving Pre-Contact Diplomacy).

Example: A new INT-2 power has a pre-contact exploration breakdown of 75/25/0/0/0. This means that 75% of the lanes from the home system are explored and 25% of the lanes one system away have also been explored. If the NPE's home system contained 5 jump lanes, 4 of the jump lanes would already have been explored. If those 4 explored systems contained a total of 11 jump lanes, the NPE would have also explored 3 of them. As the third, fourth, and fifth slashed notation values are '0', the NPE cannot have explored any farther out from their homeworld.

Generate System Statistics

Once all explored systems have been determined, the CM should generate statistics for each of the systems using either the CG System Generation rules, or either of the detailed system generation rules found earlier in this book (see 2.1 Advanced System Generation Rules).

Place Pre-Contact Colonies

Once all pre-contact exploration is conducted and system statistics have beengenerated for those systems surveyed prior to contact, it is time for the NPE's colonial assets to be placed on the map. The CM (or player generating the NPE) chooses which systems are colonized based on their base system statistics. When placing these pre-contact colonies, the CM or player should pay special attention to the systems' statistics as well as their strategic location within the NPE's empire. It is far more likely that the NPE would have colonized a major trade node than a backwater star system, unless said backwater system held extremely lucrative mineral wealth.

In addition to the base Productivity statistic on each world, interstellar NPEs receive a bonus Productivity increase at each of their colony worlds based on their tech level. This bonus is to help and demonstrate the maturity of the industry on their colony worlds. Take the Interstellar power's tech level (INT-1 = 1, INT-2 = 2, INT-3 = 3, etc.) and divide by two, rounding down, and add this to the system's Productivity. This Productivity bonus cannot increase a system's Productivity beyond its Census value. Any bonus Productivity that would not be Utilized is lost.

Systems which do not have colonies placed in them during this step have their Census, Morale and Productivity statistics reduced to 0. RAW and Carrying Capacity statistics remain unchanged.

If the number of systems explored by the NPE is less than the number of NPE starting colonies, then the remaining colonial assets should be integrated into existing colonized systems. For each colony that cannot be placed on the map, increase the Census, Morale and Productivity of one existing colonized system by 1.

Generate AIX Statistics

Roll d100 for each of the NPE's three AIX statistics: Aggressiveness (AG), Integrity (IN), and Xenophobia (XE). The die result is then assigned to the corresponding statistic (see 6.1.1 The AIX Species Reaction System).

Resolving Pre-Contact Diplomacy

If the newly generated NPE activated additional NPEs during its pre-contact exploration (see Performing Pre-Contact Exploration), then it becomes necessary to resolve what previous level of contact these NPEs have and what treaties (if any) they have signed.

Follow the following steps to resolve pre-contact diplomacy.

1) Roll for NPE Relationships

Roll one d100 for each NPE. The resulting value is then assigned as the current Relationship level between the selected NPE and the target NPE (see 6.1.3 NPE Relationships). Note that for each Relationship two d100 rolls will be made, one for the first NPE's relationship with the second NPE, and vice versa.

2) Hostilities Check

Each NPE makes a Hostilities Check to determine whether or not the two parties engaged in a Pre-Contact War. Unlike the standard rules for hostilities checks, a successful roll indicates that the two parties engaged in a Pre-Contact War. If this occurs, compare the starting points of both empires and check against the chart above for effect.

Please note that the results of a Pre-Contact War are not resolved until after the placement of all pre-contact colonies is complete.

4) Roll to Determine Starting Treaty Levels

Roll d100 for each NPE and compare the result to their respective acceptance chances (see Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances). The treaty with the lowest treaty acceptance chance (e.g., the most difficult to sign) which is less than or equal to the d100 result is the highest level treaty the NPE will have been willing to sign prior to contact.

The highest-level treaty levels generated by the two NPEs are then compared. The least restrictive treaty level will be the current treaty between the two powers. This means that, if one NPE had been willing to sign at most a Mutual Defense Treaty but the opposing NPE's highest level treaty was a Non-Aggression Treaty, only a Non-Aggression Treaty would be signed.

In addition to the highest level treaty, the two powers will have also signed all lesser treaties that came before it. The progression of treaty levels is given on the accompanying chart. For example, if two NPEs entered into a pre-contact Mutual Defense Treaty, they would also have signed a Non-Aggression, Trade, and Peace Treaty in addition to the previously noted Mutual Defense Treaty.

Additional treaties are also available (for example, see 6.2 New Diplomatic States), but they are not 'core' treaties and the chance of a NPE having entered into any of these treaties prior to contact is minimal. In the case of a Co-Belligerency Treaty, this treaty will only be active if both newly activated NPE powers are both have hostilities/war declared against the same opposing power and their initial diplomatic level allows them to have signed the treaty (based on their respective highest level treaty results).

5) Finishing Up

Once these steps are complete, all previous diplomatic interactions between the two NPEs will be revealed and both will be ready to advance in the NPE setup process.

Pre-Contact War Resolution Chart

The enemy has 50% or more starting points: NPE Conquered. The Pre-Contact War did not end favorably for the weaker empire. Despite their attempts to hold back the enemy advance, they have failed. All of the lesser NPEs systems (but not its starting points) become the property of its victorious enemy.

The enemy has 25% or more starting points, but less than 50%: Losing the War. The war is still raging, and this NPE is on the losing end. Both NPEs lose 25% of their starting points (rounding down) and the weaker of the two NPEs (e.g., the one with fewer starting points) has lost half of its systems (rounding up) to the enemy power. These systems must be contiguous or else link to existing enemy or enemy allied territories.

If the stronger of the two NPEs (by starting points) is AG 40 or less, then an Armistice has been negotiated, putting an end to this war prior to contact. Apply the diplomatic effects of an Armistice.

The enemy has 10% or more starting points, but less than 25%: The Conflict Continues. Both NPE powers are still locked in a state of war, but neither of them has made substantial headway. Both NPEs lose 10% of their starting points (round down), and the lesser of the two NPEs also lose one system to their rival power. This system must be contiguous or else link to existing enemy or enemy allied territories.

If the stronger of the two NPEs (by starting points) is AG 50 or less, then an Armistice has been negotiated, putting an end to this war prior to contact. Apply the diplomatic effects of an Armistice.

The enemy has less than 10% more starting points: Low Level Conflict. The two NPEs are stalemated and neither side has been able to make any headway against their enemy. Neither side loses any of their starting points as a result of the conflict.

If the stronger of the two NPEs (by starting points) is AG 60 or less, then an Armistice has been negotiated, putting an end to this war prior to contact. Apply the diplomatic effects of an Armistice.

Spend Starting Points and Place Assets

The NPE is free to spend as much or as little of its starting points as it wishes. The CM is given carte blanche when deciding how to spend starting points. The intent is for the NPE to use its starting points to provide it with an acceptable number of starting units and infrastructure. The only caveat is that all purchases paid out of this "pre-activation point pool" must be legal purchases. This means that a NPE that does not start with a shipyard cannot use its starting points to build starships, as there is nowhere the ship could have been built!

For more information on setting up a new empire, refer to CG 2.5 Setting Up the Game. The instructions and tips given in that section are as applicable to setting up new NPE empires as they are to setting up player-controlled empires.

In CM-less play, the purchase and placement of a NPEs starting assets should be performed by either a neutral player or else the player whose empire is located the farthest away from the new NPE's own territories.

Tech Investment at Time of Contact

Before a NPE empire begins play, the CM must determine how much of its tech advancement requirement has already been fulfilled. For interstellar NPE powers (INT-1 and later), divide the number corresponding to the current turn (month) number by 12 and multiply the result times the empire's current tech requirement (rounding down). For example, a NPE activated in 2247.5 with a tech requirement of 64 would divide 5 (the current turn) by 12 (total turns in a year) and multiply the result times 64, which equal 26 points of tech investment currently applied towards the NPE's next tech advancement.

In the case of pre-Interstellar NPEs, roll d100 and multiply the result times the tech advancement requirement listed for the NPE's tech level (rounding down). This is the amount of tech investment currently applied towards their tech advancement requirement.

Finalizing NPE Activation

Congratulations, your new NPE is almost finished! By this point in the activation procedure, the NPE's empire, past diplomatic dealings, and initial forces should all have been determined. All that remains is to move on to 6.1.3 NPE Relationships and determine the relationship between this new NPE and the existing power that made contact with it. Because this is the first time the two powers have met, this also constitutes a First Contact situation, and those rules will cover the remaining steps necessary to finalize setup of this new NPE power.

NPE Relationships

NPE diplomatic actions are guided in large part by how they view their neighbors. Each NPE maintains a separate, distinct Relationship value with each opposing power it has come in contact with. This Relationship is measured on a sliding scale with 50 representing perfect neutrality. The higher the Relationship value, the better the relationship between two powers. The lower the Relationship value, the poorer the relationship and the better the chance that they will come to blows. Relationship values have no maximum or minimum value, but typically they will range between 0 and 100 throughout the course of a campaign.

Because each NPE generates and maintains its own set of Relationship values, situations can occur where one NPE has a particular affinity for a second NPE, but that other NPE holds an undying hatred for the first NPE. This might seem odd, but first impressions can differ wildly between species. More often than not, over time the two Relationship values will tend to equalize, or else the relationship will self-destruct and plunge both powers into a state of open hostilities.

First Contact

Upon First Contact, each NPE involved rolls d100, subtracting an amount equal to 10% of its Xenophobia value from the result (rounding down). If the two powers are controlled by members of the same species (e.g., two human factions encounter one another for the first time) add 10% to this roll. This is the initial Relationship between the NPE and the other power. It is important to stress that both powers roll and maintain separate Relationship values. Just because Race A is smitten with Race B does not mean that their love will be reciprocated.

If upon First Contact Relationships are in such a sorry state of affairs that one power or the other has a non-negative Hostilities Chance, roll a d100 against the Hostilities Chance. If the result is equal to less than the chance, the contacting fleet's commander has opted to engage the new alien race in combat. A deep space scenario is immediately generated, but with a scenario length modifier of –4. If both forces successfully made a hostilities check, resolve the scenario as normal. If the opponent failed a First Contact hostilities check of their own, they will receive a –2 to their surprise roll. If the opponent didn't make a hostilities check at all, this penalty is increased to –4. The forces of the power whose hostilities check succeeded receive no bonus or penalty to their surprise roll, but they will ignore all below readiness results.

If neither party rolled a hostilities check, the two powers will assume a diplomatic level of Normal Relations. If a hostilities check is successfully made, then the two powers are considered to have immediately and automatically entered into a mutual declaration of hostilities. This declaration of hostilities will not be resolved until an armistice is signed.

As the final act of resolving a First Contact situation, each NPE involved in the first contact applies a treaty delay to relations with the new power equal to its Xenophobia. This initial treaty delay reflects that newly contacted NPEs will be leery of new alien empires. Until they can acclimate to the new political climate, the NPE will be loath to enter into any long-term treaties with their new neighbors. For more information on treaty delays, refer to Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances.

Diplomatic Shifts

Each turn, the state of a NPE power's relations can shift. As in the real world, a constant web of politicking takes place behind the scenes. While the nature of these backdoor discussions is not readily discernable, their effects can shape the fates of empires.

During the Intel Phase of each turn, roll on the Diplomatic Shift Chart for each Relationship value. The results a diplomatic shift will cause the Relationship to either go up, go down, or stay the same. In the case of a natural die roll of '1', '50', or '100', a Critical Diplomatic Shift takes place.

Intel can be assigned during the Turn Orders Phase in an attempt to modify a specific Relationship, whether it involves that power or not. An empire (including player empires) can spend Intel points to modify other empire's Relationships as easily as Relationships between their empire and another power. Intel used in this fashion is assigned to a specific NPE Relationship. Each Intel point spent applies a ±2 modifier to the diplomatic shift roll. Using Intel to achieve a negative modifier might be desired if you are trying to destabilize a Relationship, while a positive modifier can be helpful in improving relations in order to avert hostilities.

As with all diplomatic Intel use, there is no range requirement and all Intel used to modify relationship shifts comes out of the military Intel pool.

Diplomatic Shift Table (Roll d100)

5 or less-5 Relationship
6-25-1 Relationship
26-74No Effect
75-95+1 Relationship
96 or more+5 Relationship

±2 per Intel point assigned

Note: A natural '1', '50', or '100' will result in a Critical Diplomatic Shift (see Critical Diplomatic Shifts).

Critical Diplomatic Shifts

Critical diplomatic shifts represent fundamental changes in a political relationship. These rare events have major effects on two empire's political relationship. The reason for the political shift is not given, but it can be inferred from its results.

Critical diplomatic shifts occur whenever a natural '1', '50', or '100' are rolled on the Diplomatic Shift Chart. Critical diplomatic shifts override any other effects on that chart.

Natural '1': Political Disaster

A horrible diplomatic catastrophe has occurred that threatens to destabilize relations between the two powers. BOTH powers have their Relationship values reduced by 10. The NPE that rolled the natural '1' will immediately attempt to break the highest level treaty they have with the target power at a bonus equal to the NPE's Xenophobia. This power's treaty delay times will also be quadrupled as a result.

If no treaties exist to be broken, the NPE will make an automatically successful declaration of hostilities against the target. If a declaration of hostilities already exists, then an automatic declaration of war will occur.

Natural '50': At a Crossroads

The NPE is not sure where the relationship is going, but they know that they are standing at a crossroads. The very future of the galaxy could rest on what their leaders choose to do on this day! The NPE that rolled the natural '50' has its treaty delay reduced to zero and may attempt to sign one treaty of the CM's choice with the targeted power, or else automatically break one or more existing treaties or declare hostilities/war against the power.

Natural '100': Peace in Our Time

A new age of goodwill and understanding has given the two empires hope for a peaceful future. BOTH powers have their Relationship values increased by 10. The NPE that rolled the natural '100' will have its treaty delay reduced to zero and will then immediately attempt to sign the next highest level treaty available to them.

CM's Note: A good CM should make sure to provide a colorful reason for these critical shifts and work them into his or her campaign's story or plot if at all possible. Critical diplomatic shifts can make for a great story hook or to flesh out prior story elements.

Relationship Modifiers

Other campaign events can trigger changes in NPE Relationships. In particular, atrocities committed as part of war can have a major impact on how a NPE views another power, or how other powers view them. Below is a list, broken down by category, of different events that can cause a change in NPE Relationships. The number in parenthesis is the amount added to the existing Relationship roll. Only the affected NPE(s) add these modifiers.

Intel Mission Related
• Power implicated in a successful sabotage/insurgency mission (-3)
• Power was caught running an insurgency mission on one of your systems (-2)
• Power was caught running a sabotage mission on one of your systems (-1)
• Power was caught running an espionage mission on one of your systems (-1)

Territory Related
• Power has ceded claim of a system to you (+1)
• Power has captured a claimed system (-1)
• Power has given you a colonized system (+1 per 2 income generated by system, rounding up)

Diplomacy Related
• Power has signed a non-aggression pact or trade treaty with an enemy (-1)*
• Power has signed a peace treaty with an enemy (-2)*
• Power has signed a mutual defense pact with an enemy (-4)*
• Power has signed an alliance or co-belligerency pact with an enemy (-6)*
• Power has declared hostilities against you (-5)
• Power has declared war against you (-10)
• Power has declared hostilities against a peace treaty member (-1)
• Power has declared hostilities against a mutual defense pact member (-3)
• Power has declared hostilities against an alliance member (-6)
• Power has declared war against a peace treaty member (-1)
• Power has declared war against a mutual defense pact member (-3)
• Power has declared war against an alliance member (-6)
• Power has committed genocide against another power (-20)

Combat Related
• Power has generated an encounter scenario against your forces w/o declaring hostilities or war (-4)
• Power performed a sneak attack (e.g., generated scenario without publicly announcing a declaration of hostilities/war) (-10)
• Power has killed a Census belonging to your empire (-10 per Census)
• Power has killed a Census belonging to a mutual defense pact member (-4 per Census)

* = For purposes of these relations modifiers, an enemy is considered to be any power with whom the NPE is currently engaged in hostilities or war.

CMs and Relationships

Events that occur during the course of a campaign may prompt CMs to modify NPE Relationships. There are some acts, especially player initiated ones, that simply cannot be predicted within the confines a strictly delineated set of rules. For that reason, CMs should feel comfortable giving bonuses or penalties to Relationships based on special events.

The litmus test for such changes is this: "If a player was controlling this NPE, would they react favorably or unfavorably to this event or opposing empire's action?" If the answer is 'yes,' then it is wholly appropriate for the CM to intervene on behalf of the NPE and change Relationship values accordingly.

For example, perhaps a player's empire moved into a system that an enemy empire had been using to attack the NPE. By denying their known enemy this attack route into their space, the NPE should really be appreciative to the player empire for giving them a reprieve. Then again, the NPE might have been winning that conflict and would be unhappy that the player's empire decided to steal their spoils. In that case, the Relationship between the NPE and the player empire would realistically drop instead.

The AIX values of an empire might also influence the CMs interpretation of NPE reactions to certain situations. Using the example from the previously paragraph, a high AG NPE would be truly miffed that another power robbed it of the glory of the kill. A low AG NPE meanwhile would be quite happy to have the conflict cut short, given their aversion to violence.

NPE Diplomacy

Each turn, during the Intel Phase and after all Diplomatic Shifts and Relationship Modifiers have been applied, NPEs perform their diplomatic actions. This includes hostilities checks, armistice checks, and offering/breaking treaties (in that order).

Hostilities Checks

Although peace and stability is the professed goal of most governments, all too often the pursuit of these 'ivory tower' ideals directly leads to conflict with other rival powers. The reasons for hostilities are numerous. Whether it is for territory, resources, or pure jingoism, at one point or another in their history most nations will find themselves cast into the breach.

During the Intel Phase of each turn, a NPE makes a hostilities check against each of the empires which it is currently in contact with. The percentage chance of success is equal to the NPE's Aggressiveness minus 2 times the Relationship. Roll d100 against this value to determine success or failure. Less Aggressive NPEs will have a lower chance of activating hostilities against another power.

If the hostilities check succeeds, one of the following actions will result, depending on the current status of the Relationship between the two empires.

Hostilities Check
AG – (Relationship x 2)

1) NPE has signed treaties beyond Normal Relations with the target power

The NPE will first attempt to sign a declaration of hostilities against the target power as per CG 3.4.4 Diplomatic Actions. If the declaration succeeds, see section two below for results.

If the NPE fails in its attempt to declare hostilities, it will instead attempt to break its highest level treaty with the target power. See Breaking Treaties.

Example: A NPE rolls successfully on its hostilities check against a rival empire with which it has signed a Non-Aggression Treaty. The base chance of declaring hostilities is 20%. The modifier for being in a Non-Aggression Treaty is –20% (non-cumulative). The chance of breaking the treaty is 0% (20% – 20%) before any other applicable modifiers. Because the chance is zero or less, the attempt to declare hostilities automatically fails.

Having failed its attempt to declare hostilities, the power will now instead attempt to break its highest level treat (the Non-Aggression Treaty).

2) NPE is only in a state of Normal Relations with the target power

The NPE will attempt to sign a declaration of hostilities against the target power as per CG 3.4.4 Diplomatic Actions.

Once a declaration of hostilities has been successfully declared there is a chance that the NPE will opt not to inform the targeted party of this change in diplomatic status. The NPE must make a percentile die roll against its Integrity; if the result is greater than or equal to the NPE's Integrity, then the declaration of hostilities will remain secret until such time as the NPE begins exercising the advantages of the declaration.

If the NPE declared hostilities while still possessing treaties with the target power (see the previous section) and was successful in keeping the declaration secret, those treaties will remain in effect until the NPE generates a scenario against the power. Otherwise, all existing treaties are automatically broken once a declaration of hostilities is signed.

Example 1: A NPE rolls successfully on its hostilities check against a rival empire with which it only has Normal Relations. As a result, the NPE will now attempt to Declare Hostilities. The base chance of Declaring Hostilities is 20%. The chance of declaring hostilities is 41% before any other applicable modifiers.

Example 2: The NPE's declaration of hostilities was successfully declared. Now the power determines whether or not the declaration is private or public. The NPE has an Integrity of 67. The NPE rolls d100 and gets a '40'. Since this value is less than the NPE's Integrity value, the declaration of hostilities is not kept secret but is instead publicly announced. The NPE would have needed a '67' or higher in order to keep the declaration confidential.

3) NPE has already declared hostilities against the target empire

The NPE will attempt to sign a declaration of war with the target power as per CG 3.4.4 Diplomatic Actions.

Once a declaration of war has been successfully declared there is a chance that the NPE will opt not to inform the targeted party of this change in diplomatic status. The NPE must make a percentile roll against its Integrity; if the result is greater than or equal to twice the NPE's Integrity value, then the declaration of war will remain secret until such time as the NPE begins exercising the advantages of the treaty. Until the declaration is revealed by NPE actions, the normal treaty modifiers associated with having a declaration of war signed against the target power do not apply.

Example 1: A NPE rolls successfully on its hostilities check against a rival empire with which it has already engaged in a declaration of hostilities, which has been reciprocated by the enemy. As a result, the NPE will now attempt to declare war. The base chance of declaring war is -20%, with a modifier of +25% from the enemy already having declared hostilities against the NPE. The power has a 5% chance of declaring war before any other applicable modifiers.

Example 2: The NPE's declaration of war was successfully signed. Now the CM determines whether or not the declaration is private or public. The NPE has an Integrity value of 80. The NPE rolls d100 and gets a '87'. Since this value is less than twice the NPE's Integrity value, the declaration of war is not kept secret but is instead publicly announced. The NPE would have needed a '160' or higher in order to keep the declaration confidential, and since such a role is impossible on a d100 the NPE was honor bound to publicly declare the declaration of war.

War/Hostilities Tracking

Once hostilities or war are declared against another power, it becomes necessary for the NPE to track economic losses associated with the conflict for purposes of 6.1.5 Armistice Checks. These economic losses fall into two categories: enemy economic losses and friendly economic losses. The NPE must also track how long the conflict has lasted (the conflict duration) as this will have a major impact on the empire's armistice checks.

Enemy Economic Losses:

Enemy economic losses are tracked from turn to turn until a conflict is ended. The total amount of enemy economic loss must be kept on hand at all times for use in computing the armistice check. The following is a list of applicable enemy economic losses:

• The economic cost all enemy units destroyed in battle, including both space and ground units. Count the repair cost of enemy units that are crippled but not destroyed in battle. This is the primary form of economic loss for the enemy empire.

• The economic cost of all units captured by your empire. This includes captured ships and bases (including enemy shipyards) and any ships captured under construction at enemy shipyards.

• When a system is conquered, the enemy is considered to have taken an economic loss equal to twice the system's per turn income. For example, if the NPE's ground forces conquered an enemy system with an output of 8, the NPE would add 16 to its enemy economic losses total.

Once an armistice is signed, the enemy economic losses total is zeroed out. It does not carry over from conflict to conflict.

Friendly Economic Losses:

Friendly economic losses are tracked in the same way as enemy economic losses are. The total amount of friendly economic loss must be kept on hand at all times for use in computing the armistice check. The following is a list of applicable friendly economic losses:

• The economic cost all friendly units destroyed in battle, including both space and ground units. Count the repair cost of friendly units that are crippled but not destroyed in battle. This is the primary form of economic loss for the friendly empire.

• The economic cost of all units captured by the enemy empire. This includes captured ships and bases (including friendly shipyards) and any ships captured under construction at friendly shipyards.

• When a system is conquered, the NPE is considered to have taken an economic loss equal to twice the system's per turn income. For example, if the enemy's ground forces conquered a friendly system with an output of 30, the NPE would add 60 to its friendly economic losses total.

Once an armistice is signed, the friendly economic losses total is zeroed out. It does not carry over from conflict to conflict.

Conflict Duration

The conflict duration is the number of turns that has passed since the power first declared hostilities/war against the enemy power. Each turn, prior to making an armistice check, this value is increased by 1.

Once an armistice is signed, the conflict duration is reset to zero. It does not carry over from conflict to conflict.

Armistice Check

After a NPE has successfully declared of hostilities or war, there is a chance each turn that the NPE power will attempt to sue for peace. This is called an Armistice Check. Likewise, other NPEs who have had hostilities/war declared against them will make an Armistice Check of their own. The percentage chance that the power will offer an Armistice to end the conflict takes into consideration a multitude of elements including the current Relationship with the enemy power, the amount of economic loss incurred by both sides, and the duration of the conflict itself. The Armistice Check formula is given at the top of this page.

Armistice Check
Relationship + (Friendly Economic Losses – Enemy Economic Losses) – (25% x AG) – (25% x XE) + (Conflict Duration x 2)
Round to the nearest integer

Once a NPE successfully activates its Armistice Check one of two things may happen. First, if the targeted empire is a player-controlled empire, that player can decide to either accept or reject the Armistice without having to roll for the attempt. However, if the targeted empire is a NPE, then it must make an acceptance roll to decide whether or not the Armistice treaty will be accepted. The NPE power offered the Armistice makes a percentile die roll against its Normal Relations acceptance chance to determine acceptance or refusal. If the targeted empire accepts, then an Armistice is signed, ending the conflict. Both empires will then return to a mutual state of Normal Relations. This same process is used whenever a player empire offers a NPE an Armistice.

If an Armistice Check succeeds but the enemy power does not accept the Armistice, the offering NPE empire receives a +1 bonus to its Relationship symbolizing its desire to continue the peace process. If the targeted empire is also a NPE, it also receives this +1 bonus (whether it likes it or not!).

NPEs and Treaties

Offering and signing treaties is the most important part of diplomacy. NPEs can offer, accept, or break treaties with other empires during this step. A NPE's decision to perform any of these actions is heavily dependent on their relationship and past dealings with the target power.

Offering Treaties

Each turn during the Intel Phase, NPEs roll to determine if they will attempt to sign a treaty with one or more previously contacted empires. The decision to offer a treaty relies heavily on the current Relationship between the NPE and the targeted empire, as well as the NPE's inherent fear of outsiders (Xenophobia). or simply offering chance, take the current To determine the treaty offering chance, Relationship value times 20% and then subtract 10% of the NPE's Xenophobia. Round all fractions to the nearest integer. The result is the percentage chance that the NPE will ask the target empire for a treaty on the current turn.

Offering Chance
(Relationship x 20%) – (XE x 10%)
Round to the nearest integer

Example 1: Species A has a Relationship value of 43 with the target empire, Species B. Species A has a Xenophobia value of 65. Species A's offering chance for the turn is equal to 43 * 20% – 65 * 10% = 2.1, which rounds down to a 2% chance of offering a treaty on the current turn.

Example 2: Species B has a Relationship value of 58 with the target empire, Species A. Species B has a Xenophobia value of 18. Species B's offering chance for the turn is equal to 58 * 20% – 18 * 10% = 9.8, which rounds up to a 10% chance of offering a treaty on the current turn.

The previous two examples illustrate the impact that a NPE's Xenophobia can have on the offering chance. NPEs that are extremely Xenophobic are unlikely to actively pursue diplomatic relations with other empires, instead preferring a state of non-intercourse. Conversely, NPEs with low Xenophobia values will enthusiastically pursue treaty opportunities in an attempt to strengthen relations with other powers.

After a treaty offer is made, the NPE must then determine what type of treaty (if any) it will be offering the target power. To do this, calculate the offering NPE's treaty acceptance chances, referring to Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances for guidance on how to determine these values. One the offering NPE's treaty acceptance chances are known, the NPE will attempt to offer the next highest treaty with a positive, non-zero acceptance chance beyond its current diplomatic state.

It is possible for a power to make a successful offering attempt but not have any treaties it is willing to sign with the target power. If all higher level treaties have a treaty acceptance chance of zero or less the treaty offer is cancelled, but the NPE's treaty delay with the power is halved, rounding fractional delays down (see Treaty Delay).

CM's Note: It is important to note once more that Xenophobia and Aggressiveness are not related properties. In many favorite science fiction settings these attributes seem to go hand in hand, so it is easy to fall into the cliché that an unfriendly alien is a hostile alien. Under the AIX system, it is completely possible that you may generate a species or faction that are complete Xenophobes, but have a low enough Aggressiveness value so as to render them Pacifistic.

It might become necessary in a campaign to remind your players that those NPEs that seem to not offer or accept treaties are not necessarily out to get them, but would rather just not want anything to do with them.

Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances

The decision to sign, reject or break a treaty has consequences beyond entering into a new diplomatic state. NPEs react to their neighbors' actions. Kindness and friendship are rewarded, while betrayal is avenged.

NPEs, like most realistic governments, are slow to enter into relationships with foreign powers. Where some player powers might feel comfortable jumping directly from Normal Relations to an Alliance, few NPE powers would ever consider such a thing. To NPEs, diplomatic relations is a long-term project, and treaties are not something to be entered into lightly.

Each treaty type is assigned a treaty delay. This treaty delay is a penalty that is applied to the acceptance chance when rolling for acceptance of new treaties from a particular power. This penalty to the acceptance chance is equal to the current treaty delay. Each time a new treaty is offered, the treaty delay will be increased. If the treaty offer succeeded, add the full treaty delay. If the offer is rejected, apply half of the treaty delay. Treaty delay increases are cumulative and affect both the offering and/or offered NPE powers.

When a NPE power is offered a treaty by another power (whether human or NPE), they do not automatically accept the treaty. Instead, the NPE rolls against its treaty acceptance chance, also referred to as acceptance chance, to determine if the NPE wishes to sign the offered treaty. The acceptance chance for any given treaty is equal to the base treaty chance for that form of treaty plus the NPE's Relationship value versus the offering empire, minus both the NPE's Xenophobia and applicable treaty delay. Base treaty chances for each current treaty type are listed on the following page.

Treaty Acceptance Chance
Base Treaty Chance + Relationship – XE

A NPE rolls d100 for each treaty it is offered during a turn. If the result on the die is equal to or less than the acceptance chance, then the NPE has accepted the treaty. When a treaty is signed, the offering power receives the listed signing bonus as a modifier to its Relationship value with the target empire. Both powers then increase their treaty delay in relation to one another by an amount equal to that listed for that particular treaty type.

If a treaty is rejected, check the percentile roll against the acceptance chance. If the number rolled is greater than or equal to twice the acceptance chance, then the treaty offer generated an international incident and the Relationship between the two powers receives a penalty. Refer to the International Incident Table to determine the Relationship change.

This negative relationship modifier affects all NPEs involved in the failed treaty acceptance roll (e.g., both the NPE that offered the treaty and the NPE that it offered the treaty to).

Additionally, if a treaty is rejected, the offering power receives the listed rejection penalty as a modifier to if Relationship value with the target empire.

International Incident Table (Roll 2d6)

2-4-1 Relationship
5-7-2 Relationship
8-10-5 Relationship
11-12-10 Relationship

Refer to the table below to determine the base treaty chance for each type of treaty and any applicable Relationship bonuses or penalties associated with signing, rejecting, and breaking treaties.

NPE Treaties Chart

Treaty TypeBase
Treaty Chance
Normal Relations60N/AN/AN/AXE
Tribute Treaty†50±0-5-1024
Non-Aggression Pact40+1-2-212
Trade Treaty30+1-1-212
Peace Treaty30+1-2-512
Naval Appropriations Treaty*10±0-1-218
Mutual Defense Treaty-10+2-1-1024
Research Treaty*-10+1-1-1024

* = NPEs will attempt to sign a treaty of this type only if the next highest treaty is unavailable, or if the CM determines that it is the most prudent treaty for the NPE to sign at the moment.
† = Rules for Tribute Treaties and NPE diplomacy vary from those for other powers. See Tribute and NPEs for details.

Breaking Treaties

As Relationships change it is possible that a treaty that once one attainable with a NPE power will become unavailable. NPEs may also attempt to break treaties as a byproduct of a failed Hostilities Check.

Each turn, during the Intel Phase, a NPE will attempt to break any and all treaties with foreign powers which have a current treaty acceptance chance of 0 or less (see Treaty Acceptance Chance). The normal rules for breaking treaties, covered in CG 3.4.4 Diplomatic Actions, are used for breaking treaties, except that NPEs receive an additional modifier to breaking a treaty based on their Integrity. To calculate this modifier, subtract 50 from Integrity and divide by -2, rounding up. This modifier is then added to the chance of breaking a treaty.

Breaking Treaties
Normal Chance of Breaking the Treaty + ( (IN - 50) / -2 )
Round to the nearest integer

Treaty Delay

As first mentioned in Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances, a treaty delay is used to show that NPE empires are not likely to hastily accept foreign treaty offers on a whim, and continuously bugging a NPE to sign a new treaty will lead to a deterioration in relations.

Each NPE Relationship is assigned a treaty delay. As a result, a NPE will have a separate treaty delay value with each foreign empire it has contact with. As with Relationship values, treaty delays it is common for two opposing NPEs to hold wildly different treaty delay values.

Treaty delays affect the willingness of a NPE to enter into a new treaty. When rolling treaty acceptance, the NPEs treaty acceptance chance is reduced by its current treaty delay with the offering power. For example, a NPE with an acceptance chance of 50% and a treaty delay of 18 would have an effective acceptance chance of 50 – 18 = 32%.

There are several ways in which a treaty delay can be extended. First, the signing of a treaty will increase the NPEs treaty delay by the listed delay for that treaty (see the treaty chart under Signing Treaties & Treaty Acceptance Chances). Refusal of a treaty offer will increase the NPEs treaty delay by half the listed delay for that treaty (round up). Breaking a treaty will increase the treaty delay by TWICE the listed delay for that treaty. In the case of multi-NPE diplomacy, both NPEs are affected by these modifiers. If a NPE offered another NPE a Non-Aggression Treaty and that NPE refused the offer, both would have their respective treaty delays increased by half the treaty delay for a Non-Aggression Treaty (12), which would be equal to an increase of 6 to both delays.

Treaty delays will reduce over time, at a rate of 1 per campaign turn. This treaty delay adjustment takes place at the end of the NPE diplomacy step, after all NPE diplomatic actions are resolved (e.g., after CG 3.4.4 Diplomatic Actions, but before CG 3.4.5 Intel Missions). Additionally, a NPE's treaty delay with a power is halved as the result of a successful offering chance occurring when the offering NPE is not willing to sign a higher level treaty (see Offering Treaties). Critical Diplomatic Shifts can also affect treaty delays, raising or lowering them depending on the result.

Intel and NPE Diplomacy

In addition to the normal applications of diplomatic Intel use discussed previously, and in the VBAM Campaign Guide, there are several special circumstances specific to NPE diplomacy where Intel points can be used to improve the chances of treating offers and acceptance.

Intel and Treaty Offers

The use of Intel can influence the successful ratification of treaties. When offering a treaty, each Intel point spent applied towards the treaty improves the NPE's offering chance by +10% and increases the targeted NPE's acceptance chance by +1%. Intel used in this manner must be allocated towards the treaty as part of the order to offer it in the NPE's Turn Orders for the turn. In this manner, a CM or controlling player can attempt to force a NPE to offer a treaty when it is in its best interest to do so.

Example: Species A has a 7% offering chance with Species B. The CM believes that a Trade Treaty with Species B is in Species A's best interests and wants to attempt to help the process along (both powers have already entered into a Non-Aggression Pact).

Species A applies 6 Intel points towards attempting to sign a Trade Treaty with Species B on the current turn. This improves Species A's offering chance by 60%, for a total offering chance of 67%. Assuming the offering chance succeeds, Species A will also receive a +6% bonus to the target empire's treaty acceptance chance.

Intel and Treaty Acceptance

NPEs can use their unallocated Intel points in the military Intel pool to react to diplomatic overtures made by other powers. Each Intel point applied towards a foreign treaty offer can either increase or decrease the acceptance chance by 5%. In some situations a NPE may wish to ensure that a treaty is signed, while in others it may wish to block a treaty from being ratified.

The decision to use Intel points to modify the acceptance chance is made when the treaty is offered during the Intel Phase of the turn. The player or CM controlling the NPE can use any or all of the NPE's available Intel points from the military Intel pool to modify the acceptance chance.

Example: Species B receives a Trade Treaty offer from Species A and has an unmodified acceptance chance of 45%. The 6 Intel points spent by Species A increases this value by 6%, to 51%. Species B does not particularly care to involve itself with Species A, as that power has been getting into a lot of border disputes lately. Species B does not wish to be viewed as a token 'ally' of Species A by the other players.

Species B makes the decision during the Intel Phase to allocate 7 Intel points from the military Intel pool to attempt to block acceptance the treaty by reducing its treaty acceptance chance. The 7 Intel points provide a –35% penalty to the acceptance chance, reducing the chance of accepting the Trade Treaty from 51% to 16%. Species B rolls against this value and rolls a '21'. This value is above '16', albeit not by much, so the treaty is rejected.

Tribute and NPEs

Tribute can be an extremely persuasive diplomatic tool. The offering and demanding of tribute can lead to profound changes in diplomatic relations.

NPEs may only offer Tribute Treaties if Intel points are applied to the attempt. Refer to Intel and NPE Diplomacy for details on Intel use in NPE diplomacy. Because of this limitation, Tribute Treaties cannot be offered without CM or player intervention. This prevents a weakling NPE from attempting to finagle tribute out of another, more powerful empire.

CM's Note: NPEs require a great deal of exterior assistance when evaluating when to offer or sign Tribute Treaties (see 6.2 New Diplomatic States for more information on this treaty type). The player or CM in control of the NPE's activities should be directly involved in the decision whether or not to sign a Tribute Treaty. A NPE cannot sign such a treaty without the express consent of the controlling player/CM. The reason for this limitation is simple: to prevent abuse of NPEs by player empires that would turn NPEs into 'money boxes' to be pillaged through diplomatic means.

NPEs Offering Tribute Treaties

The option of having a NPE government offer (demand) a Tribute Treaty with another power will always exist, but it is most likely to be exercised when a NPE is strong enough to back up its threats. The player/CM operating the NPE will have to balance its available knowledge of the situation to determine whether or not the NPE it holds a military, economic, and/or political superiority over the possible target of the Tribute Treaty.

Note that a NPE will only attempt to extort tribute out of a power if its acceptance chance for a Tribute Treaty is greater than zero. If the acceptance chance is less than or equal to zero, then the offering NPE is most likely interested in outright conquest rather than simple tribute.

NPEs Accepting Tribute Treaties

The decision to accept a Tribute Treaty once again requires some input from the NPE's human caretaker. As with offering tribute, before a Tribute Treaty is accepted the player/CM should look at what the NPE knows and/or feels about the offering power. If the only other alternative is a possible war or diminished relations with the power demanding tribute form the NPE, then it might be in the NPEs best interests to accept the treaty. However if the accepting NPE is in fact more powerful than the power that is demanding tribute there is likely no reason for the NPE to accept the foolish proposition!

Despite player intervention, acceptance of a Tribute Treaty is still limited by the traditional treaty acceptance rules. If relations between the offering and accepting powers has deteriorated too far and the accepting NPE's acceptance chance for a Tribute Treaty is less than or equal to zero, then the accepting NPE will automatically rebuff the tribute demand. With their acceptance chance that level, the NPE has resolved not to be extorted by the opposing empire.

NPE Tech Advancement

NPE tech advancement falls into one of three major categories, corresponding to three general levels of NPE sophistication: high tech, mid tech, and low tech.

High tech NPEs are all of those with a technology level of INT-1 or higher. High Tech NPEs conduct research in exactly the same manner as other player races and are under no special rules or limitations.

Mid tech NPEs includes both IND-2 and IND-3 powers, as well as some IND-1 powers (those with Productivity). NPEs at these two technology levels are still paying tech investment points towards their tech advancement requirement, but both still perform "normal" tech investment, which individual unit advances possibly coming available as time progresses. This is especially true of IND-3 powers, which are treated link INT-1 powers without FTL drive capabilities (e.g., can't use jump lanes).

Low tech NPEs, including P-IND and some IND-1 powers, are generally incapable of performing research. What tech investment they do generate goes entirely into tech investment, which is applied to the NPE's tech advancement requirement. Low tech NPEs see no benefits from their tech investment outside of reaching their advancement requirements.

Low Tech NPE Research

P-IND and IND-1 NPEs do not start with any pre-existing Productivity on their homeworlds, nor are they capable of building Productivity immediately after activation (and P-IND NPEs are incapable of building Productivity at all!). As a result, these powers are unable to produce the economic points necessary for tech investment to take place. Instead, all P-IND and IND-1 NPEs generate one (1) point of tech investment each campaign year (e.g., one per 12-turn cycle) per Census on their homeworld. This of course means that, in a worst case scenario, it could take a P-IND NPE nearly 24,000 turns to reach IND-1, or the quivalent of 2,000 game years.

Realistically, NPEs with a technology level less than IND-3 will not attain a higher technology level during the course of a campaign unless they are directly assisted by other more advanced powers (see Technological Uplift).

Technological Uplift

In their travails, interstellar empires may sometimes come upon less developed species. These peoples can run the gamut from being simply pre-FTL to being pre-technological. In any cases, it is possible for a player or NPE to intervene in such a way as to accelerate a pre-interstellar NPE's technology level. The ways that this can be done are varied and depend on the low tech NPE's initial starting conditions. It can involve something either as simple as providing important research assistance and training, or as elaborate as altering the species' genome and genetically guiding them down the path towards sapience. The process of aiding the technological development of a pre-interstellar NPE is collectively referred to as uplift.

In order for a power to uplift another less advanced NPE power, they must have a permanent presence at the homeworld of the race to be uplifted. High tech empires have three options available for establishing this presence on the low tech NPE's homeworld.

The first and most desirable option is to build 7.2.9 Uplift Centers on the homeworld of the NPE to be uplifted. Uplift Centers are built like bases (see CG 3.7.4 Base Construction), meaning that the owning player will have to setup a chain of Transport Fleets between sources of available construction capacity and the low tech NPE homeworld in order to first build the Uplift Centers. Once in place, each Uplift Center on a pre-interstellar NPE homeworld will generate 1 tech investment point per turn which will be applied to the low tech NPE's tech advancement requirement. Additionally, all tech investment paid by the NPE is effectively doubled if its homeworld contains one or more Uplift Centers.

The second option available to would-be uplifting empires is to establish a full colony of at least 1 Census on the alien homeworld. This act is seen as being more threatening than building Uplift Centers and is generally more expensive, but it serves roughly the same purpose. All tech investment payments by the aided low tech NPE are doubled thanks to the presence of the high tech empire's Census on their homeworld. However the widespread contact with outsiders has a better chance of causing unrest. All Morale checks made at the alien homeworld receive a –1 penalty, plus an additional –1 per ground unit stationed on the planet.

The third and final option for uplifting a low tech civilization is through the application of force. If a high tech power garrisons two ground units per low tech Census on the NPE's homeworld, mandatory uplift and assimilation can begin. Even if the high tech empire chooses to conquer the planet, this form of uplift should still be tracked. As with the other two methods, the NPE's tech investment is effectively doubled. However, using ground units to force compliance causes widespread panic and breeds hatred among the local population. Under this form of uplift, all Morale checks with positive effects are ignored and all Morale checks with negative effects are automatically triggered. All rebellion rolls are made at a +2 bonus to the attempt. Finally, the low tech NPE's Relationship with the high tech power is reduced by 1 per turn that the military presence remains on their homeworld.

The uplift of a NPE is complete once they reach INT-1. Beyond this point no additional uplift is possible.

Optional Rules

The following are optional NPE rules that are not typically in play, but are available to those players that would like to take advantage of them.

Annual NPE Activation

Under this optional NPE rule, player exploration or CM intervention is not the sole method of activating new NPEs. Instead, there is a chance every 12 turns (e.g., every year) that a new NPE will make its presence known. This adds extra chaos to a campaign, as players will never know when (or where) a new NPE will appear.

Every twelve turns, roll d100. On a result of 10% or less, a new NPE is activated. If the activation roll succeeds, generate the NPE as to 6.1.2 NPE Activation. The new NPE empire will always be interstellar, so ignore any results of IND-3 or lower.

Once the NPE empire has been fully generated, place one of the NPE's fleets (typically a scouting force) randomly in one of the outermost explored systems containing an unexplored jump lane. This is the system from which the NPE will achieve contact with the existing campaign milieu. Once the originating system is determined, randomly select one existing system as the destination system of the new jump lane. If using the 2.2 Exploration Campaign rules, follow the guidelines for establishing new lanes (See 2.2.3 Generating New Systems). If you are not playing a 2.2 Exploration Campaign, simply connect the two systems and roll on the Jump Lane Class Table (see CG System Generation), applying the result to the lane.

Player Empires as NPEs

Campaigns can be played where all empires, including those under player control, are managed as NPEs. Each government would be assigned AIX stats and carryout diplomacy as if they were NPEs. If this option is used, players will find that they are no longer the omnipotent ruler of their empire but will instead be subject to the whims and eccentricities of their governments. Players will have to fight to get their policies enacted, making the use of diplomatic Intel that much more important since it will be the primarily tool for them to win support among government leaders. The player may also end up having to play damage control with foreign governments after his or her position is undermined by eroding relationships or rejected treaties.

Some players and CMs might find this situation exciting or fun. It certainly acts to cast the player as the head of an empire rather than being the empire incarnate. Be aware though that some players will find this loss of direct control of the affairs of their empire disconcerting and undesirable. Players should make sure that they can all agree to abide by the NPE diplomatic rules at the start the campaign in order to try to prevent problems later on in the campaign.

The Role of the CM in the Management of NPEs

The CM plays a major role in the smooth operation of NPE empires. It is the CM's responsibility to act as a caretaker for the NPEs, updating Relationships, resolving NPE diplomacy actions, and issuing turn orders, to just list a few items. The CM should try to make the NPEs in his campaign "come alive" for the players. You absolutely do not want your players to consider NPEs to be little static empires that sit there and do nothing. Get creative and string together story lines or diplomatic statements based on the NPEs' actions or reactions to the events in the campaign.

When dealing with NPE reactions to events, CMs should feel free to give NPEs bonuses or penalties to their Relationships with other powers based on campaign interactions. Many of the most common interactions have already been listed within the NPE rules, but they are by no means exhaustive. Individual campaign stories will vary wildly, and the actions of your other players should be factored into the outlook of NPEs as if the NPEs were "real" players, too. If one of your players starts making threatening moves towards an NPE border and the NPE finds out about it, then it makes sense that the NPE's Relationship with that player would be reduced by a few points.

Similarly, when assembling turn orders for NPE powers, a CM should make sure to have the NPE react to the information that it has available. Building on the previous example, let's say that the NPE had recently suffered a fairly catastrophic –5 drop to its Relationship with the player 's empire. This could be interpreted by the CM as a sign that the NPE is growing distrustful of the player empire. "What is that sneaky player up to?" the NPE might wonder. Perhaps an Intel Espionage: Fleet mission into one or more surrounding systems might be warranted, just so that the NPE can check up on what the other power is doing.

That is one possible interpretation of the situation. But to get a fuller picture, the CM will want to consult the NPE's AIX stats and its relations with any other players. If our threatened NPE had a high AG stat, it might not even worry about spying on its neighbor; perhaps using Intel to get started on a declaration of hostilities would be more prudent? If the NPE was a slathering warmonger with an AG of 90 or more, that might be an apropos reaction!

In another case, the threatened NPE might have a neighboring empire (NPE or player-controlled, it doesn't matter) that it is friendly with. They have signed up to a Peace Treaty thus far. With the distrust of the player empire growing, the NPE might be given orders to try and sign a Mutual Defense Pact with the friendly empire.

It is these types of situations that a CM must analyze while running NPE empires in a campaign. Look at the situation from the view of the NPE and ask yourself, "What would I do if I were the player?" Temper your result with the species' outlook, as symbolized by its AIX statistics, and you should have a solid course of action for the empire to follow.

Managing player empires and NPEs both might be too much for some CMs. It is entirely all right for feel overwhelmed with having to control so many aspects of a campaign. Some CMs might find it desirable to delegate control of one or more NPE empires to other parties, preferably neutral players who can manage the 'day-to-day' operations of the NPE, leaving the CM responsible only for resolving the NPE's diplomatic rolls and not the complete management of their empire.

CM's Note: It is possible for CM-less campaigns to make successful use of NPEs, but the threats of bias (or even just the claims of bias) might prevent them from being used in CM-less play unless a neutral third party is available to moderate the NPEs.

Integrated NPE Diplomacy Example

Integrated Example: NPE Activation

During the course of the Antaran Empire's exploration along the rim, they inadvertently trigger a new NPE power. The campaign is using the 2.2 Exploration rules, including the Exploration and NPE Activation rule. The Antaran's scouting force entered a Major Colony system and had a 20% chance (5% base chance + 15% Major Colony bonus) of activating a new NPE power. The Antarans rolled an '11' and activated a new empire: the Incordu Alliance.

First, we must determine the NPE's tech level. Referring to NPE Tech Level, we roll 2d10 on the NPE Result Table. We roll a '10', which means that the Incordu Alliance is an Early Interstellar (INT-1) power.

Because the NPE is INT-1, the contact system (the Major Colony, which we shall call Silver) is not the NPE's home system. The home system is one jump away, via an unexplored (or unvisited) jump lane. If the NPE had been INT-2, the homeworld would have been two jump lanes distant. The CM creates a new star system, named Incoth (the name of the Incordu homeworld), and applies the following base system statistics: Census 8, Morale 7, RAW 5, Productivity 6, Capacity 10. He then rolls three times on the Special Traits Table, providing results of +1 RAW, +2 Productivity, and +1 Census, +2 Capacity. The Incordu system now has statistics as follows: Census 9, Morale 7, RAW 6, Productivity 8, Capacity 12.

Now we perform pre-contact exploration for this NPE. When generating Incoth, the CM assigned five unexplored jump lanes to the system, one of which was then used to attach the system to the contact system. Because the NPE is an INT-1 power, it has only explored 50% of the jump lanes emanating from its home system, and no jump lanes beyond that. The system originally had five unexplored lanes, so 50% of this (rounded up) yields a total of three jump lanes explored by the Incordu Alliance prior to its activation by the Antarans. We know of one of these systems (Silver), but the Incordu also explored the Gold (Minor Colony) and Iron (Outpost) systems prior to contact. We roll statistics for these systems now.

While performing their pre-contact exploration, the Incordu encountered a Pre-Industrial (IND-P) civilization in the Iron system. Because they are pre-Interstellar, the Iron system is the native population's home system. Let's call these aliens the Ironlings. We keep the system statistics for a normal Outpost system and roll our one special trait on the table. However, since this is a IND-P power, they cannot begin play with Productivity, so after system generation is complete we must reduce the Iron system's Productivity statistic to 0.

It is now time for the Incordu to place their pre-contact colonies. Being an INT-1 power, they receive 1 + 1 per 3 colonies (round down) at activation. They have explored exactly three non-home systems prior to activation, so they have two colonies to place. Since Iron is already inhabited, the NPE will place its colonies in Silver and Gold instead. Normally, the NPE (CM) would want to place its colonies in the systems with the best statistics.

After colony placement, we finally see if the power has received any bonus Productivity at its worlds. We divide the NPE's Interstellar tech level by 2 and round down. 1 / 2 (RD) = 0, so the Incordu colony worlds do not gain any bonus to their Productivity statistics.

Now we must generate AIX statistics for our new NPE. The Incordu have AG 100, IN 40, and XE 62. Oops! The Incordu are extremely aggressive and none too friendly. We must also generate AIX stats for the Ironlings. The Ironlings receive AG 91, IN 62, XE 14. They are also fairly aggressive, but are more open to alien interaction than the Incordu seem to be.

With the AIX stats generated, it is now time to resolve pre-contact diplomacy between the Incordu and Ironlings. Both NPEs roll d100 for their Relationship with the other power. The Incordu roll '93', but the Ironlings only roll a '50'.

We must now roll hostilities checks for both powers. The Incordu have a 100 – (93 x 2) = -86% chance. The Ironlings have a 91 – (50 x 2) = -9% chance. Because both NPEs' hostilities check chances are negative, there is no chance that they will have entered into a pre-contact war.

It is now time to determine what level of diplomatic contact the Incordu and Ironlings have achieved prior to the arrival of the Antarans. This is done by rolling d100 for each power. The Incordo roll '19' and the Ironlings roll '84'. We compare these numbers to each power's treaty acceptance chances to see what the highest level treaty is they are willing to have signed. The Incordu roll indicates that they would have been willing to sign either a Naval Appropriations or Co-Belligerency treaty as their highest level treaty types (it is a tie between the two values). The Ironlings meanwhile have a highest level treaty of Normal Relations only. Normal Relations is the most restrictive of the two highest level treaty types, so the Incordu and Ironlings are currently in a state of Normal Relations with no other treaties currently signed.

Pre-contact diplomatic actions for both the Incordu and Ironling empires are now complete. If the Ironlings had been an Interstellar power, we would have had to generate star systems and work through activation in the same way we did for the Incordu. Luckily for us, we didn't have to do that in this case!

With diplomacy out of the way, now it is time to spend these NPEs' starting resources. Because the Ironlings are IND-P, they do not receive any starting points, so we actually do not have to worry about making purchases for them at this point. The Incordu meanwhile start with two times their systems' combined output (e.g., total domestic product). We know that their home system generates 48 economic points per turn. Let's assume that Silver has a system output of 15, and Gold has a system output of 9. This gives us a total domestic product of 72, for a total of 144 economic points in the Incordu Alliance's pre-activation point pool. This points will now be spent on the Incordu's starting assets, including (but not limited to) shipyards, ships, flights, bases, satellites, mines, ground units, civilian fleets, and Intel.

After our purchases are made, it is time to determine how much tech investment both NPEs have made prior to contact. The Antarans activated the NPEs on turn seven of the year 2345 (often written in shorthand notation as 2345.7). The Incordu will have made 7/12 of their normal tech investment goal (round down) upon contact, which is 36 points. We multiple 7/12 times 36 and round down; the Incordu have paid 21 points into tech investment prior to contact.

The Ironlings are pre-Interstellar, so their prior tech investment is handled differently. They will have completed a percentile amount, determined by a percentile die result, of their IND-P tech advancement requirement of 2000. A d100 is rolled with a result of '56' on the die. The Ironlings have completed 56% of their tech investment (round down) prior to activation, so 1120 points of tech investment are applied to the Ironlings tech investment pool to go towards their goal of 2000 points.

The final step in the NPE activation is to roll a First Contact roll for the Incordu in relation to meeting the Antaran scouts at Silver. The Incordu roll for their initial relationship with the Antarans and roll a '26' on the d100. We then subtract 10% of the Incordu's XE stat, rounding down (10% x 62 = 6), from this roll, which yields '20'. This is the NPE's Relationship value with the Antarans.

As an astute reader might have realized at this point, a Relationship value of 20 does not mix well with a power that has AG 100. We now check to see if the Incordu are capable of making a hostilities check against the Antaran forces. Unfortunately for the Antarans, the Incordu have a 100 – (20 x 2) = 60% for their hostilities check at first contact. The Incordu roll against this check and roll an '80'. The Antarans breath a sigh of relief. The Incordu decided – against their better judgment, I'm sure – not to attack the Antaran scouting force. However, there is a very good chance of future conflict between the Incordu and the Antarans.

Finally, with first contact resolved, the Incordu set their treaty delay with the Antarans equal to the Alliance's XE stat (62).

A First Contact roll is not made for the Ironlings in this situation, because the Antarans have not yet encountered the Ironlings.

NPE activation is now complete. We have completed the activation of the NPE that the Antarans encountered, plus all of the NPEs that the Incordu then activated during their setup process. We can now proceed to normal play with the NPE powers.

For the purposes of the rest of the example, the Ironlings will be largely ignored due to their ability to do much of anything worthwhile. Just note that, since they do not have any Productivity on their world, their tech investment rate will be 1 point per campaign year. Without outside assistance, it will take the Ironlings 880 years before they will become an Early Industrial (IND-1) power.

Turn 2345.8 NPE Diplomacy

The first NPE diplomatic action in a turn's Diplomatic Actions Phase is to update all NPE relationships. We roll d100 for each relationship value. The Incordu roll a '23' on the Diplomatic Shift Table for their Relationship with the Antarans. The Relationship goes down by 1, to 19. There are no other events or modifiers that will affect the NPE's relationship at this time.

As noted previously, we are omitting the Ironlings in order to streamline these examples. Normally we would roll a diplomatic shift roll for the both the Incordu and Ironlings to update their respective relationships with one another.

The second diplomatic action is to make a hostilities check (if applicable). The 1 point decrease in the Relationship value has increased the Incordu's hostilities check to 62%. The NPE rolls a '92'. For the second turn in a row, the Incordu have avoided attempting to make a declaration against the Antarans.

Next we check the Incordu's offering chance with the Antarans. Their offering chance is equal to (19 [Relationship] x 20%) – (62 [XE] x 10%) = -2%. Obviously, the Incordu don't like the Antarans enough to even want to attempt to sign a treaty with them!

No other diplomatic actions need to be performed for this relationship this turn, as the NPE did not offer a treaty. With the turn's diplomacy over, the Incordu's treaty delay with the Antarans is reduced by 1 to 61.

Turn 2345.9 NPE Diplomacy

First, our diplomatic shift. However, seeing that the diplomatic conditions are pretty bleak, the Antarans elected to invest 10 Intel points towards adjusting the Incordu's diplomatic shift roll with their empire in a positive direction. The Incordu roll '77' on the Diplomatic Shift Table. We then add 10 x 2 = 20 to the roll, for a total of 97. This increases their Relationship by 5! Relations are now at a 24.

In order to gain the Incordu's trust, the Antaran government also ordered that a group of three vacant star systems near Incordu space currently under Antaran control be ceded to the Incordu Alliance. This increases the Relationship value to 27.

Unfortunately all of these diplomatic and territorial concessions have done nothing to placate the Incordu's belligerent passions. This turn's hostilities chance is 46, and the d100 comes up a '46'. The Incordu make an attempt to declare hostilities, with a base chance of 20% and no bonuses to the attempt. They roll '55'. The declaration attempt fails.

The Incordu's offering chance remains too low to offer a treaty (-1%) so the treaty delay is reduced by 1 (to 60), and the NPE's diplomacy this turn ends.

Turn 2345.10 NPE Diplomacy

The diplomatic shift roll is '95', and the Antarans once again spent 10 Intel points to improve the diplomatic shift roll. The Incordu's Relationship with the Antarans increases by 5 and is now at 32.

The hostilities chance for the turn is 36%. The hawks in the Incordu government must have a strong following, as the hostilities check rolled by them this turn is a '25'. Once more, the Incordu attempt to sign a declaration of hostilities, but again they fail on their attempt ('72' rolled).

The Incordu's offering chance has finally reached 0%, but that still means that they will refuse to offer a treaty. Given that the Antarans still haven't pushed their luck and tried to offer a treaty, no checks for treaty acceptance are performed. The treaty delay is reduced by 1 (to 59), and the NPE's diplomacy this turn ends.

Turn 2345.11 NPE Diplomacy

Huzzah! The Incordu's diplomatic shift roll against the Antarans is a natural '100', resulting in a critical diplomatic shift! Their Relationship increases by 10 (to 42), and the Incordu's treaty delay is reduced to 0. The Incordu will also attempt to sign the next highest-level treaty with the Antarans (Non-Aggression Treaty) during this turn, in addition to any other treaties that are offered.

Despite the jubilation, the hostilities chance is still 16%. A '25' is rolled; the Incordu hawks must be highly upset that the Antaran diplomats are proving too resourceful. They had really been looking forward to killing something!

The Incordu's offering chance is now at 2%. They roll a '97', resulting in no additional treaties being offered. The fact that the offering chance is now positive though is a good sign for the future, so long as the era of good feelings continues.

There are no treaty acceptance rolls this turn, but the Antarans do accept the treaty they were offered (very happily, I might add!). The Incordu Alliance appreciates the acceptance of the treaty, and upon signing the treaty we check the NPE Treaties Chart to see what modifiers to apply. Signing a Non-Aggression Treaty will increase the Incordu's Relationship with the Antarans by 1 (to 43) and increase the treaty delay by 12.

The treaty delay was reduced to 0 by the critical diplomatic shift, but the treaty acceptance increased it by 12. The treaty delay is reduced by 1 like it is every turn, setting the delay with the Antarans at 11.

Turn 2345.12 NPE Diplomacy

It is the final turn of the campaign year. The diplomatic shift roll is '42', meaning that diplomatic relations are holding steady.

The hostilities chance is 14%, and the Incordu roll '57'. Again, conflict is delayed.

The Incordu roll a '2' against their offering chance of 2%. Consulting their treaty acceptance chances, the Incordu are unfortunately not willing to offer a new treaty atthis time. The treaty acceptance chance for a Trade Treaty is 11%, but this is before we subtract the treaty delay of 11. This reduced the treaty's acceptance chance to 0%, meaning the Incordu are simply not willing to advance their relationship with the Antarans at this time. However, the offer does show a resolve to develop stronger ties in the future, so the treaty delay is reduced by half (rounding down) to 5.

Unfortunately, the Antarans didn't know that the Incordu weren't ready to become good buddies. They offered the Incordu a Trade Treaty this turn. Since we have already determined that the acceptance chance for this treaty type is 0% on the Incordu's side, the treaty is rejected. If the Antarans were a NPE power, they would receive a Relationship modifier for the treaty's rejection. However there is a chance that the treaty's rejection may have caused an international incident. The treaty's acceptance roll ('7') is greater than twice the acceptance chance (0), so an international incident has resulted. Rolling on the International Incident Table, the result is a '2', which means that the Relationship has dropped by 1 (to 42).


These first few months following the NPE's arrival on the galactic scene have been hard on the Antaran Empire. They opted to give the Incordu three of their claimed systems and invested 20 Intel points to try and improve their relationship. Luckily for them, their investment of resources paid off, and the Incordu are unlikely to be declaring hostilities against them anytime soon. But the Incordu Alliance is still a loose cannon, thanks in large part to its AG 100, and the Antarans will have to watch them closely.

Meanwhile, the poor Ironlings are forced to toil in their pre-industrial wonderland, farming dirt like only the descendants of true Trata Kamans can.

Movement Phase

The Movement Phase consists of ship movements, Trade Fleet movement, and raider movement. All movement is simultaneous. Ships are moved according to the movement orders placed in the 3.2 Turn Order Phase. Once all ship movement is resolved, Trade Fleets are reassigned to their new trade routes and, finally, raider activity is checked for and any raiders are deployed into their target systems.

Ship and Flight Movement

Ships and flights can move along jump lanes from one system to another. Depending on the type of jump lane, the speed and safety of transit may vary. There are optional rules that change the behavior of jump lanes or allow the creation and improvement of jump lanes (see 4.2 Optional Jump Lane Movement). The default rules are explained in this section and are assumed to be in use for all examples.

Ships may move through two (2) major jump lanes in one turn, so long as that travel occurs entirely on Major jump lanes and that all systems along the route, including the origin and destination, are controlled by the player's empire or an allied power. Otherwise, you can only move through one (1) major jump lane per turn. Ships may move through one (1) minor jump lane per turn. Ships may move one (1) restricted jump lane per turn so long as one ship in the group has a jump drive or other form of faster-than-light drive. This typically restricts the use of these jump lanes to military ships, as civilian ships tend to rely on the jump gate infrastructure.

System Basing Capacity

A system may contain any number of ships (these ships are not "based" in the system), bases or other space-borne units. Systems may also base units (such as ground units) on the ground, typically on a planet. Atmospheric ships may take off from a system, travel between systems and land in a system in addition to moving through hyperspace via jump lanes. A system may base a number of squadrons of atmospheric ships equal to its Productivity statistic. A squadron command ship may be assigned or the planet's Productivity statistic may be used as the command rating for the purpose of forming these squadrons (see Task Force Creation). Atmospheric ships do not have to land, but may do so at their option. They may only land on planets that are at least in contested status.

Depending on your universe background, flights of fighters or shuttles may gain many of the movement benefits of ships, but unlike ships, fighters do need to land somewhere, eventually. Flights that do not find a place to land at bases, ships or other units capable of holding fighters, need to be able to land in the system itself. A system can base as many squadrons (a squadron being made up of four flights) as its utilized Productivity statistic squared. In the case of breaching pods, each breaching pod counts as a flight for purposes of planetary basing.

If movement ever causes a flight to end their move in a system were they cannot land, excess flights are removed from play (they are scrapped as per 3.7.13 Scrapping) until the number of flights is under the limit. These can be the flights that were moved into the system or ones that were already in the system.

There are some flights that are incapable of basing on planets. These non-atmospheric flights can only be based on other units or, in a future expansion, may be able to base on system locations that lack atmosphere, such as small moons or asteroid belt locations.

Moving Through Other Units

If ships from two or more non-friendly powers move along the same jump lane in opposite directions, then both sets of ships will be stopped. So long as ships are stopped in a jump lane, any ships of any power not friendly with at least one of these groups of ships will also be stopped in that jump lane if they try and pass along it.

Ships that start the Movement phase within a jump lane cannot be stopped before they reach their destination system. Additionally, they will stop any non-friendly ships in their destination system from being able to use the jump lane they just arrived from by generating an encounter in that system. Any non-friendly ships in the destination systems that have orders to leave the system by other jump lanes will not be stopped and are otherwise not affected by the arrival of the ships from the jump lane.

Trade Routes

Trade routes can only contain up to three adjacent systems at a time. A system is considered adjacent to another so long as a minor jump lane or better connects them. Trade routes may not cross a restricted jump lane. Trade routes can be assigned to Trade Fleets and their escorts. Trade Fleets do not have to use a trade route and may move normally like any other unit, but Trade Fleets only generate income along a trade route.

Trade Fleets can have their trade routes and escorts reassigned during the movement phase. The new route is in effect before checks for raider activity or encounters are made. The new trade route must contain at least one system from the Trade Fleet's old trade route or the system the Trade Fleet started in at the beginning of the movement phase.

Escorts may only be assigned to a Trade Fleet if they started the movement phase in a system on that Trade Fleet's trade route after all trade route reassignments are made. Escorts that are removed from a Trade Fleet must be placed and end the movement phase in a system on that Trade Fleet's trade route at the beginning of the movement phase (before any trade route reassignments were made).

Moving Ground Units

Ships move ground units from system to system. All non-marine ground units have a size of 10. The Transport Fleet has a Supply (10) rating, which means it can carry one ground unit. This supply rating only applies to moving units; Transport Fleets cannot perform any other Supply functions. Other ships may have a carrying capacity specified by their Supply (X) in their description. Typically, assault ships or military transports will only be able to carry a ground unit if multiple ships are involved. A division of Assault ships (one ship division is equal to the denominator in the class' maintenance cost) have a Supply (10) rating for purposes of moving ground units.

Marines are a special ground unit that are also used as security and boarding troops in space, on ships, and at bases. Marine regiments are half the size of a normal ground unit (size of 5) for carrying capacity and Transport Fleet purposes. Some special ships are capable of carrying more Marines than other ground units. If this is the case, details will be provided in the ship description. Marines are the only ground units that can invade from a Transport Fleet without the use of Assault ships (see Invasions).

Ground units are embarked or disembarked from a planet in the troop landings phase (see Landings and Deployment). A unit may only be embarked or disembarked once per turn and cannot do both on the same turn. This means that a ground unit may not be embarked and invade on the same turn.

Moving Other Units

Moving other units is very much like moving ground units, except that only Transport Fleets or other dedicated cargo carrying units (such as military supply ships) may be used to carry units other than ground units. The reason is that these other units tend to require larger bulk capacity storage. A DEFSAT, for instance may fit, in terms of cargo capacity, in a particular Assault ship. But that Assault ship was meant to be carrying ground vehicles and infantry; it doesn't have the voluminous cargo spaces that the large pieces of a disassembled DEFSAT require. Cargo carrying units will have a supply rating listed that will indicate how much cargo they can carry, indicated by their Supply (X) value. Recall that Transport Fleets are Supply (10).

Units that can be moved as cargo will note their size rating in their source materials description. If no size rating is given, consider it to be equal to the unit's defense value divided by two (2), rounding up. This size matches one-to-one (1:1) to the Supply rating of a cargo ship. For example, if a DEFSAT has a size of 1, a ship with a Supply (3) rating can carry 3 at once. A ship can mix cargos (two DEFSATS and one other unit with size 1). Small ships can combine their supply ratings to carry larger items. For example, two Supply (1) ships could combine their capacity to carry a size 2 unit, but if any of the carrying ships are lost, the entire cargo is lost. Also, the separate "pieces" of the unit must be transported at the same time, so in this example a single Supply (1) ship cannot take half, deploy it, and then return for the other half.

Census has a size of 10 and can thus be carried on a single Transport Fleet or a combination of other supply ships. Census carried on Transport Fleets or military supply ships can only be disembarked on systems that already have Census, i.e. Census carried on Transport Fleets or supply ships cannot be used to colonize new systems. Only Colony Fleets are capable of creating new colonies.

In the case of flights, they may be embarked (only) onto a unit that is capable of basing them from a planet like cargo, as well as on transports as normal. Units carried as cargo may be disembarked in a system owned by the player or an allied power. DEFSATs and mines may also be deployed from their transports into a system and are considered fully functional once they are deployed (done at the same time as disembarking in Landings and Deployment).


Unlike in wet navies, towing starships requires the use of specialized equipment. Specialized towing units, called tugs or tugboats, are used to tow other ships between star systems and out of combat zones. Towing units are rated as to the number of towing functions they possess. Each towing function allows the unit to tow one unit.

In addition to ships, towing units are also capable of transporting both DEFSATs and mines. Towing units can tow one (1) DEFSAT or group of six (6) mines per towing function. Due to their small size, the defense value of DEFSATs or mines has no impact on the number that can be towed. For example, A towing unit with Towing (2) can either transport two (2) DEFSATs; one (1) DEFSAT and six (6) mines; or twelve (12) mines.

Towing units have limited strategic movement when towing another unit or units. All towing units have their maximum movement rate reduced to one jump lane per turn, regardless of lane quality, if they are towing units, and they cannot cross a restricted jump lane with another unit in tow.

Towing units provide several advantages in combat. Only towing units are capable of moving damaged units out of active squadrons and moving them back into the Reinforcement Pool. They are also able to exempt units from participating in Pursuit scenarios.

Towing units lose half of their available towing functions (round down) if crippled.

CM's Note: Some science-fiction backgrounds make heavy use of tractor beams, specialized gravitic devices which are used to easily tow units. If this is the case, consider every unit with a tractor beam to have one (1) towing function available.

Civilian Fleet Escorts

Empires oftentimes assign military escorts to protect their civilian fleets (Colony, Transport, and/or Trade) from harm. Ships assigned to protect a civilian fleet are called Escorts. The decision to assign a fleet to Escort duty is made during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase, and the assigned Escorts will proceed to follow the civilian fleet throughout their movement during the 3.5 Movements Phase.

There are some limitations to which types of ships may be assigned as Escorts to a civilian fleet. No ship larger than a light cruiser (CL) or escort carrier (CVE) may be assigned as an Escort. This means that you could assign a frigate (FF) or destroyer (DD) as an Escort to a civilian fleet, but you could not assign a heavy cruiser (CA) or battleship (BB). Ships larger than light cruisers or escort carriers often lack the strategic speed and maneuverability required to suitably defend their convoy from nimble pirate ships. Some players may argue that they should be assign any type of ship as an Escort to their civilian fleets, but Escort duty really should be the mission of the power's light combatants. Battleships and their ilk are meant for fleet actions, not nursemaiding civilian freighters. If there is any dispute over whether a ship type should or should not be able to be assigned as an Escort, please confer with your CM as they are the final authority on this matter.

The benefit of assigning Escorts directly to your civilian fleets is that they will then always be drawn into any Encounter scenario in which the civilian fleet they are escorting takes part.

This has great utility when dealing with Raiding and other encounters during the 3.6.2 Encounters Phase. It is important to note that any Escorts assigned to a civilian fleet will be automatically included/excluded with the fleet they are escorting, unless scout functions are spent to specifically include/exclude Escorts in the scenario (see Scout Use in Task Force Setup).

The downside to assigning your military units as civilian fleet Escorts is that they will be unavailable to participate in any scenarios at their location that do not involve their escorted Colony, Transport, or Trade Fleet. An enemy could potentially use it to their advantage, excluding the escorted civilian fleet in order to deny its Escorts participation in a scenario.

If a player decides to remove Escorts from a civilian fleet, the Escort fleet is placed at the civilian fleet's current location. The former Escorts are then treated like any other fleet. For Escorts assigned to Trade Fleets on a trade route, the player may choose to place the Escorts in any of the systems along the Trade Fleet's trade route.

CM's Note: CMs should watch to make sure their players do not take advantage of the Escort rules to gain faster than normal strategic movement for their fleets.

CMs may also wish to limit the size of number of Escorts that a civilian fleet can have assigned to it based off of a special Fleet Command Rating. For instance, a Trade Fleet could be assigned a Command Rating of 8, limiting its Escorts to those with a total Command Cost of 8 or less. If this method is used, the CM should assign a Command Rating to Colony, Transport, and Trade Fleets and list it in their source materials. Using this special Fleet Command Rating would also make lifting size restrictions on Escorts practical, as placing larger capital ships as Escorts would quickly fill the available Command Cost allowance.

Sector-Based Movement

Optional Rule [Click]

In some cases it might be preferable to use a grid or hex map as the basis for a campaign map rather than using a traditional jump map as demonstrated in the VBAM Campaign Guide. The following Sector-Based Movement rules are designed to address this need for CMs and players who, either out of necessity or basic interest, would prefer to play on a grid- or hex-based campaign map.


For purposes of these rules, each grid square or hex on your campaign map is considered a sector. Each sector may contain at most one star system or none at all.

For all purposes, each sector is considered to have a minor jump lane connecting it to each adjacent sector. For grid-based campaign maps, each sector connects to eight adjacent sectors (sectors to the top, bottom, left, right, and diagonal). Hex-based campaign map sectors connect to each of the six adjacent sectors.

Sector Types

There are three distinct types of sectors: Controlled, Contested, and Neutral. Each classification describes its current political status and affects how movement operates.

Controlled Sectors

Controlled sectors are sectors that are completely controlled by a single empire or group of allied empires. Controlled sectors are relatively secure and allow for faster movement through the galaxy.

A sector is considered Controlled if one of three conditions is met:
1) The power or one of its allies has one or more units in the sector
2) The power or one of its allies has a colony in the sector
3) The sector is within the supply range of the power or one of its allies and is NOT within the supply range of any other opposing, non-allied power.

If none of these conditions are met, then the sector is considered Neutral. Ownership of a sector by any of these three points can become nebulous in the case of allied states. The owner of the Controlled sector can be determined diplomatically, but in most cases the sector will fall under the dominion of the allied power with the nearest colony. In case of a tie (e.g., more than one system is the same, closest distance from the sector), the most populace colony (highest Census) takes precedence. If a tie still isn't broken, then the system with the highest system output wins.

All movement through Controlled sectors owned by your empire, an ally, or a mutual defense pact member is performed at twice its normal rate. In other words, all of the faux minor jump lanes that normally connect sectors are treated like major jump lanes when connecting adjacent Controlled sectors.

Contested Sectors

Contested sectors are sectors in which two or more non-allied, non-mutual defense pact powers have assets (fleets, ground units, colonies, etc.) in the system. Contested sectors are often located on the borders of your empire. So long as a single foreign fleet or colony not belonging to you, your allies or a mutual defense partner is present in a sector, it will be considered a Contested sector.

Foreign empires that you have signed a Peace Treaty with may move their civilian fleets through your empire's territories without contesting control of any sectors they pass through. Foreign military assets at this treaty level will still result in sector contention.

All movement within Contested sectors is performed at the normal rate associated with minor jump lanes (e.g., one sector per turn). Faster movement through the sectors is not possible until the sector is no longer Contested but Controlled.

Neutral Sectors

Neutral sectors are sectors that are either uninhabited or not aligned with any of the major empires in the campaign. Neutral sectors have no special rules associated with them beyond the fact that all movement through Neutral sectors occurs at the normal rate (e.g., one sector per turn). Neutral sectors can be converted into Controlled sectors by stationing even a single unit within the sector, placing a colony in a sector, or increasing neighboring supply ranges so that they (but not the supply ranges of other opposing powers) include the Neutral sector. If any of these conditions are met, the Neutral sector becomes a Controlled sector.

Rules Modifications and Clarifications

The following section includes rules modifications and clarifications for use with the Sector Based Movement rules. In general, remember that movement between each sector is still considered "one jump" for game purposes.

Generating New Sectors

When generating the map, or upon first exploring a sector, roll on the Sector Generation Chart to determine the number of star systems located within the sector. After determining whether the sector contains a system, proceed with the standard CG System Generation rules to create the system's statistics. On a Terrain result, make an addition roll on the Sector Terrain Table and apply the resulting terrain to the sector.

Sector Generation Table (Roll 2d6)

2-3No System (Terrain)
4-5No System
6-101 System
11-121 System (Terrain)

Sector Terrain Table (Roll 2d6)

2-3Dust Cloud
4-5Dense Asteroids
11Dark Matter Nebula
12Maser Nebula


Movement remains largely unchanged. The equivalent of a minor jump lane connects a sector to each adjacent sector. Therefore references to "one jump" or "one lane" in the core rules would translate into "one sector" under the Sector Based Movement rules. All movement within a sector is simultaneous and does not count against a fleet's normal movement limitations. Movement between sectors is typically undertaken at a rate of one sector per turn, though the 3.3.2 Sector Type of the source and destination systems influences the actual rate of movement between sectors.

When entering a sector, a fleet will enter the system in the sector (if one exists) or else will wait in deep space for further orders.

Unless otherwise countermanded in your source materials, only those units with some form of FTL drive are allowed to move between sectors independently. All other units require escort by FTL-equipped units or some other means of transport in order to move between systems and sectors. For example, many settings make use of fixed jump gate or extra-dimensional stations to allow non-FTL vessels to move between systems/sectors.

Trade Fleets and Trade Routes

When using the Sector-Based Movement rules, the rules for trade routes remain unchanged, with the exception that the Trade Fleets will be connecting sectors, not systems. Empty sectors will still count as one 'system' in the Trade Fleet's route despite the fact that there is nothing of value in the sector.


Unless modified by your source materials, the length of a basic supply route is two sectors. All units within two sectors of a good order planet with a Census of 3 and Productivity of 3, or an in supply Supply Depot, are considered to be in supply.

Extended Supply Routes

Military supply ships can be used to extend supply routes beyond their normal ranges. Placing military supply ships in two adjacent sectors, one of which is in supply, allows an empire to trace an extended supply route from the one sector into the other.

Combat Phase

The Combat phase consists of checking supply, resolving encounters, naval combats, ground bombardment, landings and invasions and, finally, ground combat. All combat occurs simultaneously. There may even be multiple naval battle scenarios generated within one system.

Since fighting in one system cannot affect the outcome in another (other than to, perhaps, change the decisions you make), it is sometimes easier to resolve Combat phase in each system one at a time. It is recommended that the order of resolution by system be randomized to prevent anyone from gaining a benefit from choosing the order.

Supply Phase

Supply comes first in the Combat phase because everything depends on it. All units are checked for their supply status in this phase. In order to be in supply, a unit must be able to trace a basic supply route to a supply point. All units that are out of supply gain one out of supply status level. All units that are in supply have all out of supply status levels removed.

Basic Supply Routes

A basic supply route can have a length of two (2) jump lanes. A basic supply route may begin in a contested system and can only be traced through systems whose space is contested or controlled by the player or a friendly power. A basic supply route can only trace along a restricted jump lane if the systems at both ends of the jump lane contain military supply ships owned by the player or an allied power. Military supply ships are those ships owned by an empire that have a supply rating. A Transport Fleet, although it has a supply rating, is NOT a military supply ship. The combined value of the supply ships will determine how many ships they can keep in supply (see Military Supply Ships below). The basic supply route must end with a supply point.

Supply points can be either a good order planet owned by either the player or an Allied power that has at least 3 Census AND 3 Productivity, the player's good order Capital system, the good order Capital of an Allied power, or a planet with an in-supply supply depot (see Supply Depots).

Units that can trace basic supply routes are in supply and remove all out of supply status levels and used conditions during 3.6.1 Supply Phase. Units out of supply, however, gain one out of supply status level. This level is cumulative with previously gained out of supply status levels.

Supply Depots

Supply Depots are purchased and deployed like any other ground unit (see 3.7.6 Purchasing Ground Units), but they serve a special purpose in that they turn any planet they are landed on into a supply point for the owning power. Any planet can be turned into a supply point in this fashion, even planets which are not in good order, lack the Census and Productivity requirements or both! In order for a planet with a Supply Depot to become a supply point, however, the Supply Depot itself must be able to trace a basic supply route (see Basic Supply Routes).

Supply Depots are attacked and attack like any other ground unit and have all the combat factors (although very low Attack and D factors) of a ground unit. Unless otherwise stated, a Supply Depot has an attrition value equal to the purchase cost divided by two (rounding down). Supply Depots can be moved like any other ground unit and are one division in size (see 3.5.4 Moving Ground Units). Supply Depots can be attacked with 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment and can receive, and be attacked by, Tactical Support.

In addition to ground-based Supply Depots, some starbases can function in a similar capacity. Any base with 'Supply Depot' in its notes field acts as a Supply Depot at the location at which it is built. All of the benefits and limitations that apply to ground-based Supply Depots also apply to orbital Supply Depots.

Military Supply Ships

Military supply ships are used to provide supply to ships in two different ways. The first method is to allow Basic Supply Routes to trace over a restricted jump lane. This requires that military supply ships be in the systems at both ends of the restricted jump lane. For each matched point of supply rating at each end of the lane, the military supply ships can supply one ship or system. If the supply rating of the ships in the two systems are unequal use the lower to determine how much supply is provided (e.g., if one system has a combined rating of 'Supply (4)' and the other is 'Supply (3)' then only three ships/systems can be supplied).

If a ship supplied in this fashion is used as a squadron command ship, all units in that ship's squadron (or based on units in that ship's squadron) are considered in supply and have all out of supply status levels removed. A system so supplied provides supply to all ground units in the system and all out of supply status levels are removed from these ground units. If an encounter scenario results in the system using its utilized Productivity as a command ration to support planet-based flights, these flights are considered in supply and have all out of supply status levels removed.

The second method in which military supply ships can supply a ship requires that the military supply ships actually be in an unused condition and in the same system as the ships they supply. Each point of supply rating can supply one ship (but not a system). If this ship is used as a squadron command ship, all units in that ship's squadron (or based on units in that ship's squadron) are considered in supply and have all out of supply status levels removed. Military supply ships supplied in this fashion are considered in supply, but DO NOT remove their used status. This supply method does not require that the military supply ships actually be in supply themselves, nor do any of the ships in the fleet need to be in supply. Any military supply ships used in the fashion are considered used and will not become unused until they are able to trace a basic supply route (see

Effects of Being Out of Supply

The effects of being out of supply vary depending upon which type of unit is out of supply. Fighter groups do not replenish their lost fighters during the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase and do not benefit from ballistics bonuses. Ships, bases, planetary defenses and ground unit suffer from an out of supply status equal to the number of turns spent out of supply.

Unless otherwise stated in their source materials description, the following paragraphs describe the effects of being out of supply for units within campaign level combat resolution. The effects to these units within a tactical level combat resolution product are given in the appropriate linkage rules sections.

Ships subtract one point from their Anti-ship and Defense values for each supply status level they currently have. If the ship in question is a Gunship ship (see Source Materials), they subtract two points from their Attack value for every out of supply status level. If any ship's Defense value is reduced to 0, due to out of supply status levels, it is considered scuttled (destroyed) and removed from play immediately.

Flights suffer from out of supply levels a bit differently than ships. Flights with out of supply status at any level, no matter where they are based, temporarily lose their ability to replenish lost flights with newly purchased units during the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase. Flights with out of supply status level 1 lose the use of ballistics bonuses (if any). At out of supply status level 2 and for each out of supply level thereafter, they must reduce either their Anti-ship or Anti-fighter value, whichever is higher (if the same controlling player chooses), by 1. A value of 0 reduces to an asterisk. Flights with an asterisk for both Anti-ship and Anti-fighter value may not launch at all and are grounded until the out of supply status levels are removed.

Ballistic ships subtract points from their Attack value equal to the summation of all levels up to their current out of supply status level. (i.e. subtract 1 for out of supply status level 1, subtract 3 for level 2, 6 for level 3, etc…) Additionally, a Ballistic ship with any out of supply status levels is unable to access a special ordinance package.

Ground units lose an attrition point for every out of supply status level they have before the start of the combat phase (although these points do come back during the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase). Planetary defenses (this includes DEFSATs and mines) are the most resilient to being out of supply only subtract one point from their Anti-ship, Defense and/or Mine values for every 2 full out of supply status levels accumulated. Planet-based flights, however, still suffer out of supply levels as flights, but at half the normal rate. As with ships, if any unit's Defense value or attrition value that is reduced to 0 from out of supply status levels is considered immediately scuttled or disbanded and removed from play.

Orbital Bases are considered to have 1 damage level (see Base Damage Levels) for every 4 full out of supply status levels. These damage levels are "repaired" as soon as supply is restored and should not be tracked as regular base damage levels. But if the base accumulates enough out of supply levels to destroy it (not just cripple it), the base is considered scuttled, just as a ship that is reduced to a 0 Defense Value or a Ground Unit that loses all of its attrition. Additionally, if the base uses ballistics, it is unable to access any special ordinance packages while it has any damage levels due to being out of supply.

Encounters Phase

An "encounter" occurs when two or more fleets of non-friendly powers are in the same system after Fleet Movement or the fleets stumble across each other in deep space between systems. Encounters may lead to scenario generation, but they don't have to. A scenario will only occur when at least one force in an encounter demands a scenario to be generated. Depending on the situation, only certain scenarios can be demanded. Once all encounters and the naval combat scenarios generated by them have been resolved, the ground portion of the Combat phase can begin.

Encountering Trade Fleets

If a non-friendly fleet enters a system that is on a Trade Fleet's trade route, there is a chance that the Trade Fleet will be encountered. If the system is the only system on the Trade Fleet's trade route, it will be encountered there. If a Trade Fleet had two or three systems in its trade route, roll randomly to determine which system it is considered in for this Movement Phase. For example, if a Trade Fleet has a route through three systems, assign each two numbers on a d6 (1-2 is system A, 3-4 is system B, 5-6 is system C). The Trade Fleet is considered to be in the system rolled for purposes of determining if an encounter has occurred and for Raiding.


Raiding Table (d6):

1-21d6 economic points of enemy vessels, CM choice (randomize for race)
3-42d6 economic points of enemy vessels, CM choice (randomize for race)
5-63d6 economic points enemy vessels, CM choice (randomize for race)

Each campaign turn, there is a chance that Raiders or other forms of piracy will hit vessels on their cargo runs.

1) Roll for Raiding Attempts

Using a base chance of 20%, or the base raiding chance provided in your source materials, roll a d100 for every system that contains a Trade, Colony or Transport Fleet or where no military ships or flights are present, modifying the result as follows:
• System has military ships and fighters present less than 8 construction points: -5%
• System has military ships and fighters present between 8 and 12 construction points: -10%
• System has military ships and fighters present greater than 12 construction points: -20% per 12 points
• System has more than one Trade, Colony or Transport Fleet unit in it: +20% per additional unit
• Use of Intel Points: -10% per point spent

If the modified die result is equal to or less than 20% (or the base raiding chance provided in your source materials) then a raider attack has been generated in the target system. The raiders are treated as having been in the system since the beginning of the 3.5 Movement Phase. As a result, they can generate an Pursuit Scenario against any Trade Fleets visiting the system on their trade route or newly arrived Colony or Transport Fleets short of any fixed defensive points in the system (see System Encounters for details). This Pursuit Scenario cannot be refused.

If the raiders are attacking a Colony, Transport, or Trade Fleet, the targeted civilian fleet and any Escorts will automatically be included in the Pursuit scenario (unless later excluded through the use of scout functions; see Scout Use in Task Force). In addition to the fleet's Escorts, the owning empire may decide to dispatch a single, randomly selected squadron from among the system's other defenders to help protect the endangered civilian convoy. A Task Force flag squadron is allowed to fill this role only if there are no other squadrons in the system at the time of the raid. This additional squadron will begin play in the Reinforcements Pool and will not be available until 1d6 rounds into the scenario. Should the raiders succeed in destroying the targeted fleet and its Escorts before these reinforcements arrive, the scenario will end and the raiders will get away without a fight. Besides those units listed previously, no other ships, bases, or flights located in the system may take part in the scenario.

If the raiders are attacking a system where there are no military ships or flights present, not even civilian fleets, then the raiders will instead generated a Defensive Scenario and assault any fixed defenses located in the system.

2) Determine Raider Fleet Size and Composition

The size of a raiding fleet is determined by rolling on the Raiding Table (see above) to determine the total economic point cost of all raider units attacking the system. Some source materials may provide their own, more detailed raiding tables geared specifically to the setting and should be used in preference to the table above (if they exist).

Once the cost (in economic points) of the raider force is determined, the composition of the raider fleet must be determined. The CM should use these points to "purchase" raider units to take part in the raid. The types of units available to raiders in your campaign should be included in your source materials. If none are available, refer to the generic raider units included in the Generic Raider Forces Table.

3) Results of the Raid

After the raiding scenario is complete, determine the consequences of the attack. The raiders may have succeeded in crippling or destroying one or more Colony, Transport, or Trade Fleets in the attack. Refer to Scenario Resolution for the effects that this would have on the afflicted unit(s).

If the raid was instead against a system, not a civilian fleet, the system will not produce any income on the next campaign turn (though it will return to normal thereafter, barring another raider attack). A successful raider attack on a system will also require a Morale check to be made as if a hostile force had seized the system (Target Number: 3, Effect: -3 Morale).

CM's Note: You can exercise complete control over the raiding scenarios in your campaign. If you feel that a raiding scenario should be designed in a specific way, then feel free to do so. You are the grand mechanic of the game and this is where you should flaunt your creativity. As the CM, you may also have a convoy raided when they feel appropriate. This gives you the unique ability to setup up special convoy scenarios.

Generic Raider Forces Table

See Orion units
Unit NameDesignCostMaintDVASAFCRCCBasing
Heavy CarrierCVA53/3512526
Light CarrierCVL43/4422424
Medium FighterMF1/31/12212N/AN/AN/A
Light FighterLF1/41/16111N/AN/AN/A

Deep Space Encounters

Deep space encounters are the simplest encounters. All encounters in Jump Lanes are Deep Space encounters. So long as one fleet in a deep space encounter wishes to generate a scenario, then a Deep Space scenario must be generated. The fleets decide whether or not to generate a scenario in order of the fleet with the largest anti-ship value (including flight contributions and supply effects) to the smallest. A fleet can refuse Deep Space scenario by choosing to withdraw (essentially returning the fleet to the last system it was in before the deep space encounter at the end of the next 3.5 Movement Phase). However, any remaining fleets may immediately demand a Pursuit scenario by setting aside some units to give pursuit. A Pursuit scenario cannot be refused.

Once the scenario(s) (see 3.6.3 Space Combat Phase) has been resolved the fleets once again have the option of producing additional scenarios. If no fleet chooses to generate a scenario the remaining fleets have the option to proceed to their original destination or abort their original move in order to return to the last system from which they came. They will arrive at this destination (assuming they don't encounter other units belonging to another fleet in transit) at the end of the next 3.5 Movement Phase. When all fleets have made their movement decisions (which automatically become movement orders for the next 3.5 Movement Phase), the encounter in this area is resolved and you can move on to resolve the next encounter.

System Encounters

Systems are a bit more complex. An encounter can occur at a fixed defensive point or in deep space. A fixed defensive point may be a planet or just a base. As long as one fleet demands a Deep Space scenario (order again determined from highest to lowest anti-ship value) and no other fleet demands a different type of scenario, a Deep Space scenario will be generated.

If any fleet demands that a scenario occurs at a fixed defensive point and the other fleet(s) accept the scenario, then a Defensive scenario will be generated. If a system includes more than one fixed defensive point, only the defenses of one fixed defensive point may be included in a Defensive scenario.

The other fleets involved may refuse the Defensive scenario. Refusing to accept a Defensive scenario near a planet will prevent the refusing fleet from performing an invasion, a landing, supporting ground forces with orbital bombardment or air strikes, and strategic bombardment, including the use of weapons of mass destruction, at that planet (see 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment Phase and 3.6.5 Troop Combat Phase). Refusing a Defensive scenario does not have any other effects and does not force refusing fleets to leave the system.

A fleet may also refuse a Defensive scenario by preventing other fleets from reaching the fixed defensive point by intercepting them. This is possible only if the intercepting fleet was already in the system at the beginning of 3.5.1 Fleet Movement. This is called an Interception scenario.

The only fleets that can be forced into an Interception scenario or leave the system are units that were not in the system at the beginning of 3.5.1 Fleet Movement, units that are blockading the fixed defensive point or units that failed to reach the fixed defensive point in all previous 3.6.3 Space Combat phases. These units must accept the Interception scenario or leave the system. Other fleets may join the interception scenario voluntarily without affecting their status of having reached the fixed defensive point.

Fleets that successfully breakthrough in the Interception scenario are allowed to land units, perform invasion or participate in orbit bombardment both strategic and tactical, launch air strikes in support of ground forces, or employ weapons of mass destruction provided they survive all subsequent scenarios generated and do not refuse any future Defensive scenarios. These units cannot be prevented from reaching the fixed defensive point in all future scenarios (even scenarios in future turns), until they voluntarily leave the fixed defensive point (by refusing a Defensive scenario) or the entire system. Fleets that cannot be forced to participate in the Interception scenarios may voluntarily participate without any negative side effects.

The accepting fleets involved in a scenario refused by fleets choosing to leave the system, may demand a Pursuit scenario, setting aside units to pursue. A Pursuit scenario may not be refused.


If a fleet refuses a Deep Space scenario by demanding a Defensive scenario, the accepting fleets may refuse the Defensive scenario by establishing a Blockade of the fixed defensive point selected for the Defense scenario. A Blockade prevents any trade or the tracing of supply to or from other systems and all fleets that demanded the original Defensive scenario are unable to leave the fixed defensive point, until the Blockade is lifted. Once a Blockade is established, fleets under the Blockade may demand a Breakout scenario to attempt to run the Blockade, even if the Blockading player demands a Defensive scenario.

Blockades can be lifted voluntarily, when enough opposing fleets arrive to make the disadvantage of holding a Blockade too great to justify. Lifting the Blockade can occur at any time during encounter resolution, but doing so restores supply to all units under the Blockade immediately. If a player isn't reasonable enough to abandon his or her Blockade once he or she is outgunned, if all units establishing the Blockade are destroyed or crippled the Blockade is automatically lifted and supply is restored immediately. This can be accomplished by performing a Breakout scenario; only the units don't leave the system once the Breakout scenario is resolved. Planets under blockades are effectively separated from the rest of the empire's economy. To reflect this, that planet may only spend points that are created from that planet at that location. Economic points may not get in or out of the blockade, so a Planet B (under blockade) may only spend points from the economy of Planet B.

Encounter Resolution

Scenarios are generated only so long as at least one fleet demands a scenario be generated. Once all demanded scenarios are resolved, the encounter is resolved and you can move on to resolve the next encounter. Resolving a scenario happens in 3.6.3 Space Combat Phase; which can reoccur many times in a system in one turn, until all scenarios are resolved. Once all scenarios are resolved the encounter is resolved and play proceeds to 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment Phase.

Space Combat Phase

This has been replaced in favor of the similar system from Federation and Empire.


Optional Rule [Click]


Combat is resolved in rounds. Each round consists of:

Combat continues until one or both sides retreat or are destroyed.


In some cases, the fleet commanders have instructions to take greater risks in order to increase enemy losses. In other cases, they might minimize their own losses, even if this also reduces enemy losses. This is reflected by the Battle Intensity System.
In this step of the Combat System, each player selects a Battle Intensity Factor (BIF), which can be no less than 1 and no more than 4. The two factors are then added, the result being the Battle Intensity Rating.
A new Battle intensity Rating is required for each round of combat. In some cases (of prolonged but important battles), players may find it more convenient to simply agree to a given intensity rating and use it until one player announces that he wants to change his rating. This will, however, reveal that the player plans to change his rating.
The Advanced Combat Coefficient Table is used instead of the Standard Combat Coefficient Table if the players are using the Battle Intensity System. The Advanced Combat Coefficient Table provides several lines of results, each of which correspond to a different Battle intensity rating.
Note that the selection system given for Battle Intensity Ratings cannot produce a BIR less than 2 or greater than 8. The chart goes from 0 to 10 for purposes of the optional system below.
DIE ROLL123456

If one player has only units that cannot retreat (for example: a base, planet, FRD, convoy, or some combination of these), the other player selects both of the numbers (1-4) for the Battle Intensity Rating. Variable intensity can still be used.
The art of selecting a Battle Intensity Factor is more involved than simply wanting to cause more damage or to receive less. Examine the conditions carefully. If you are trying to destroy a battle station with a typical 83-point Klingon fleet and Directed Damage, you will need a 30% Combat Coefficient to score the required 24 points of damage. There is a 50% chance of this happening at a BIR of 5, which results from your selection of a 4 and the Defender's selection of a 1. On the other hand, a typical 103-point Kzinti carrier strike fleet needs only a 25% rating, which is a 5/6 probability. The defender might also select a 4, hoping to get enough points to crack a carrier group.


This step is performed simultaneously by both players. Each player calculates the total attack factors of all units within his Battle Force; this is the Combat Potential. The MSIT PDF files for each race describe the 'factors' for each ship. Not all ships are in the MSITs, but enough are that the moderator should be able to reasonably extrapolate where needed.
Following this, each player rolls one die and determines from the Combat Coefficient Table the Damage Coefficient. Then, each player multiplies the Combat Potential by the Damage Coefficient to produce the Combat Damage Result, which is expressed in a number of Damage Points. (Drop fractions of 0.49 or less, round fractions of 0.50 or more to the next higher number.) Note that as this step is simultaneous; units damaged or destroyed in a round still count toward scoring damage on enemy units. Players may use a calculator or the table below to speed these calculations.

(Click to show/remove)

EXAMPLE: The Klingon has a D7C (9 attack factors), three D7s (each 8 attack factors), and an F5 (5 attack factors). This is a total of 38 attack factors, giving a Combat Potential of 38. The die roll is (for this example) a 2, giving a Damage Coefficient of 25% with a BIR of 5. Multiplying 38 by 25% produces a Combat Casualty Result of 9.50 (rounded up to 10).
The Combat Damage Result indicates the number of enemy units (expressed in terms of their Defense Factors) which have been damaged or destroyed.
Ship factors are in the form A-D(F)/CA-CD(CF). These numbers are:
A - Attack Factor
D - Defense Factor, if this is missing then use the Attack Factor number
F - Fighter Factors, if this is missing, then it is zero. This value does not have a 1:1 relationship with the number of fighters
CA - Attack Factor when crippled
CD - Defense Factor when crippled
CF - Fighter Factors when crippled


Directed Damage represents a decision by the Battle Force commander to select a specific enemy unit as a priority target. This will usually be a scout, planet, flagship, PF tender, or some other key unit, rather than just a randomly selected cruiser. A player is not required to use this procedure in every battle or any battle.
The Attacking Player may, at his option, select one unit from the Defender Player's Battle Force. Note that by definition he must select a unit which he has sufficient Damage Points to damage by the procedure below.
The Attacking Player then deducts from his Damage Points a number equal to double the Defense Factor of the selected unit. The selected unit is crippled. It the unit was already crippled, then it is considered destroyed.
If the targeted unit was crippled by the Directed Damage, the Attacking Player can repeat the procedure to destroy the crippled target unit, using a number of Damage Points equal to double the Defense Factor of the crippled unit. He cannot, however, switch to a second target unit.
The player using Directed Damage must have the full number of points required (i.e. double the Defense Factor), not simply half as many.
The Defending Player can then repeat the procedure with one unit from the Attacking Battle Force.
A player using Directed Damage against a unit is not required to destroy its fighters or PFs. However, any fighters or PFs remaining when their support unit was destroyed or crippled can be transferred to other units able to carry them, or can be used to satisfy further damage requirements in that combat round. In effect, it is '"transfer or die." A player designating Directed Damage against fighters or PFs may do so against any or all such units in the opposing Battle Force, not merely against one such factor or "ship-equivalent" group of factors.


After resolving Directed Damage (if any), each player must resolve the remaining damage against the units of his Battle Force. The Defender does this first.
The Defending Player must give up (by crippling or destroying them) enough of his units to resolve the remaining Damage Points scored by the Attacking Player. This is based on the Defense Factors of the units he selects.
Crippling an uncrippled unit resolves a number of Damage Points equal to the Defense Factor shown on when undamaged. Removing a crippled unit (i.e. destroying it) resolves a number of Damage Points equal to the Defense Factor shown on the crippled side. Destroying an undamaged unit (i.e. crippling it, then destroying the crippled unit) resolves a number of Damage Points equal to the sum of the Defense Factors on both sides. Note that some units (convoys, FRDs) do not have a crippled status and are destroyed when damaged.
The Attacking Player then resolves the Damage Points scored by the Defending Player against the attacking Battle Force by crippling/destroying some of his units.
The owning player selects which of his units will be crippled or destroyed to satisfy the Damage Points scored by his opponent. He may select these units in any order, but selects them one at a time. When the remaining number of unresolved Damage Points is less than half of the smallest Defense Factor of the remaining units in the Battle Force, these Damage Points are ignored. (Note that as each fighter factor is a unit, points cannot be left over as long as the target units have fighters remaining.) If the remaining unresolved Damage Points are equal to half or more of the smallest Defense Factor of the remaining units, the owning player must damage a unit (cripple a unit or destroy a crippled unit) even if in doing so he gives up more Defense Factors than the other player has remaining unresolved Damage Points.
Damage Points scored in one battle cannot be transferred to another battle or used in subsequent battle in the same area.
It all units belonging to one player are destroyed, the battle has been resolved. Proceed to another battle.
In the normal Damage Allocation process, the number of damage points actually scored may not correspond exactly to the number removed. Under this procedure, records are kept of the differences between the actual and required losses, and any discrepancies are resolved on the next combat round IN THE SAME BATTLE during the same turn. It cannot be carried over to another battle or a future battle in the same area.
For example, a player is required to give up 6 damage points and cripples a 7-point war cruiser. He has given up one more point than he was required to, and gets credit for that point, which is deducted from the points scored against him on the next combat round in that battle.
His opponent crippled a 7-point war cruiser to resolve 8 damage points, the one remaining point being too small to damage any other units. This remaining point is recorded and added to the damage scored against him on the next combat round in that battle.
Any adjustments for plus/minus points are made BEFORE Directed Damage is resolved.



A player commanding a force consisting entirely of Romulan or Orion ships (which have cloaking devices) may use the device offensively:
Roll two dice. It the result is 5 or less, the enemy player has a -1 shift on the Combat Coefficient Table for the first round only. It the result is 11 or 12, something went wrong (the force was discovered while in a vulnerable position) and the enemy gets a +1 shift for the first round only. Any other result is normal combat.
These are special ships carrying the extremely powerful Mauler Cannon. The weapon fires a directed energy beam so powerful it can pierce shields and wreck ships. More importantly, the damage can be increased by the ship by the proper use of its energy. This is reflected in this game by the following special rules.
It an uncrippled mauler is included in the Battle Force, the owning player can use a number of points equal to the mauler's attack factor (usually 10) at their full value (i.e. not discounted by half) for Directed Damage. Note, this does not mean that the mauler attacks as a separate 10-point battle force, using the 2 or 3 point result. The full attack factor is used, even though other ships contributed much of it.
EXAMPLE: A Battle Force including a mauler needs 12 points to destroy a battle station. The mauler can provide 10 points, which are deducted from the total damage points scored against the target force. The remaining 2 points, being Directed Damage without benefit of a mauler, requires the expenditure of 4 damage points.
Maulers are vulnerable to "excessive shock," that is, the ship's own powerful weapons shaking it apart.
To reflect this, after every combat round in which a mauler is used for Directed Damage, roll one die. It the result is 5-6, the mauler is crippled. Maulers crippled voluntarily or by Directed Damage do not roll.
Maulers are not designed to operate alone.
There must be two non-mauler ships in the Battle Force for each mauler; any mauler not so accompanied has an attack factor of 1/2 of the printed value AND cannot be used for Directed Damage.
No more than one mauler can be used for Directed Damage in a given Battle Force.
If one Battle Force includes a unit with scout capabilities (scout ship, battle station, mobile base, starbase) and the other does not, the force without the scout must subtract one from its die roll in Step Four of the Combat Procedure. Crippled scouts cannot use their capabilities.
Some units provide more than one die roll shift. These are noted in the SIT as having an EW greater than one (e.g. "EW=2"). These units shift the die roll by the given amount.
This rule is required when certain other rules are used. Several conditions (scouts, cloaks, and others) can produce a die roll shift. No die roll shift can increase a die roll of "6" or reduce a die roll of "1". If several shifts are involved, combine them all (a -1 shift cancelling a +1 shift) and apply the final result to the die roll within the restriction given above.

Orbital Bombardment Phase

If a fleet has achieved orbital superiority they may commence orbital bombardment of the planet. There are several different methods of orbital bombardment, each depending on the objective of the bombarding player. Units that have just arrived in system and have broken through to the planet may begin their bombardment this turn if ordered to do so in their 3.2 Turn Orders. Since ships in reserve cannot be ordered to do anything but activate, they cannot participate in Orbital Bombardment.

Ships used for 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment are unavailable for Tactical Support, Productivity Suppression or for use in Interdiction of Basing, affecting ground-based flights and atmospheric ships.

Calculating Bombardment Value for Bombardment

All bombardment takes a full turn to complete. Only ships that began or continued orbital bombardment in the last campaign turn's 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment Phase and have been ordered to complete their bombardment can be counted towards the attrition value of this turn's bombardment. Additionally, these ships cannot contribute if they interrupted their bombardment by participating in space combat (even if forced into it) or having any orders other than to complete their bombardment. Add up the bombardment point contributions by unit class below or use the bombardment factors provided by source materials.

Bombardment Missions

After summing the bombardment, the bombing player will then decide what sort of bombardment mission they wish to conduct. The attacking player must have achieved orbital superiority over the planet in question.

Fleet Bombardment Point Chart

Ship TypeAbbreviationBombardment Points
Super DreadnoughtBB, SD4
Battle / Heavy CruiserCA, CC, BC, CV2
Light CruiserCL, CVL1
DestroyerDD2 ships needed for 1
FrigateFF3 ships needed for 1
Police Ships / CorvettesPT, CT4 ships needed for 1
Super Heavy/HeavySHF, HF3 flights needed for 1
MediumMF4 flights needed for 1
LightLF6 flights needed for 1
Add 1 bombardment value if that vessel is a Gunship. For ships that require multiple contributors, such as a frigate that requires 3 for 1 bombardment point, simply reduce the number by 1. Therefore, Gunship type frigates will only require 2 vessels to contribute 1 bombardment point.

Anti-Troop Bombardment

This is an all out heavy bombardment of troop positions. Count the total number of bombardment points available in the fleet. Bombardment points must be targeted at a specific unit. Roll a d10 and add the number of bombardment points targeted at the unit. The defender rolls a d10 as well and adds the unit's defense. For every 2 points the bombardment player's total is over the defending player's total, the defender's unit loses an attrition point.

Example: Two heavy cruisers are performing anti-troop bombardment. They have 4 bombardment points available and decide to target everything to a unit with a defense of 3. After a full turn of bombardment, each rolls a d10. The bombers roll a 6 and the defender rolls a 5. Since the bomber has a total of 10 versus the defenders total of 8, the defender will loose 1 attrition point.

Anti-Infrastructure Bombardment

This is a very directed attack to remove a planet's ability to produce. For every 12 bombardment points used in Anti-Infrastructure Bombardment, 1 Productivity is lost from the system next 3.1 Income Phase. For every 24 bombardment points, permanently remove 1 Productivity. In addition, collateral civilian population damage will occur. For every 36 bombardment points, remove 1 Census from the planet. For every 30 points of bombardment, remove 1 Intel. If Census is lost, Morale will decrease by 1 per Census point lost.

Anti-Population Bombardment

This represents a very cruel approach to attacking a planet. The ships in orbit opt not to attack military targets, instead choosing to destroy the population that holds the planet. For every 24 bombardment points, 1 Census is lost. For every 30 points of bombardment, remove 1 Intel. There is also a chance of collateral damage to infrastructure. 1 utilized Productivity is lost next 3.1 Income Phase for every 18 points of bombardment. For every 36 bombardment points, permanently remove 1 Productivity (this loss also counts as 1 lost utilized Productivity). Roll a d6 for each Census lost. On a roll of a 1,2 or 3, Morale decreases by 1. On a roll of 6, the people have tightened their resolve to fight and Morale increases by 1.

Weapons of Mass Destruction

The scourge of planetary assaults, only special ships may carry weapons of mass destruction. They are simply designed to destroy as much as possible in the shortest amount of time. Any ship carrying a weapon of mass destruction will receive a d10 for each such weapon carried. For each round of firing, roll a separate d10 against the Census, Productivity, Carry Capacity, and Troops on the planet. The roll must be equal to or less than the item you are targeting. For troops this number is the number of units available on the planet. Therefore, if the player is targeting the Census and the Census value is 7, they must roll equal to or less than this number on a d10. Each additional ship in the bombardment then rolls against the new numbers from the previous ships bombardment. So if the first ship reduces the Census to 6, then the second ship firing must roll against the Census value of 6 and so forth.

Hit on a Census: One Census and Morale are lost
Hit on Productivity: One Productivity is lost
Hit on the Carrying Capacity: The carrying capacity of the planet decreases by 1 (any system statistic now over the carrying capacity is reduced to equal the carrying capacity)
Hit on Troops: One unit of the defenders choice is lost.

If the Carry Capacity of the planet is reduced and there is more Census than Carrying Capacity, then one Census will be lost per turn until the Census is equal to the Carrying Capacity.

Please note that unless stated otherwise in the source material weapons of mass destruction may only be deployed on a ship of heavy cruiser (CA) size or greater.

CM's Note: CMs should actively regulate the use of WMDs in their campaigns. The weapons are extremely effective and can leave systems in ruins. If not held in check by costs or moderated use, the use of WMDs could leave your players without any viable system left to inhabit.

A CM can use orbital bombardment to enhance a story that he might be running or have an interesting interpretation of the damage to a planet. Perhaps the CM feels the population will rally support for their government against this foe, or decide the fight isn't worth it and surrender to the aggressors. A CM should consider the effect of the use of weapons of mass destruction on relations with non-player controlled powers, if any, in the game.

Troop Combat Phase

The Troop Combat Phase is where the conquest of a planet is ultimately decided. The conquest of systems is dependant on conquering all the planets. And the conquest of a power requires the conquest of its systems.

Bombing and Blockading can only go so far and, in the end, it's the ground troops that have to settle the issue. The Troop Combat Phase includes rules for invading, ground combat, tactical support and landings. The embarking and disembarking or deployment of cargoes also occurs in this phase.

Ground Combat Procedure

All ground combat occurs simultaneously. You assign each of your units on a contested planet to attack one opposing ground unit on the planet. Up to four of your units may attack any one opposing ground unit. The attrition damage you inflict is cumulative with attrition damage from all other sources this turn (such as effects from being out of supply or the effects of a sustained orbital bombardment). Since combat is simultaneous, eliminated units still get to perform their planned attacks, so long as they survived to 3.6.5 Troop Combat Phase.

Ground attacks are resolved by rolling the attacking unit's D factor die, adding its Attack value, and subtracting the defending unit's Defense value. The result, if positive, is the number of attrition damage points done to the defending unit. If other units are attacking the same unit, their D factor rolls and Attack values are added to the first unit's D factor roll and Attack value before the subtraction of the defending unit's Defense value. This typically means using more than one unit to attack a single opposing unit is more efficient. Ground units in reserve status defend like normal ground units, but have a –1 to their Defense Value and they cannot be ordered to attack.

If a ground unit does not take enough attrition damage to eliminate it, the unit will be brought back up to strength during the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase. This does not, however, in any way remove out of supply status levels on a ground unit and attrition damage due to out of supply status levels will be reassessed in the next 3.6.1 Supply Phase.


Invading units attack the turn they invade a planet at a –2 Attack Value. All defending units (not in reserve status) in an invasion gain a +1 to their defense value for being "dug in". If there are no units defending the system, the owning player may choose to deploy 1 Census (Militia) unit to repel the invasion. This unit is free and costs no maintenance, but is eliminated if a beachhead is established or removed when there are no more invading units. This elimination or removal of this unit does not affect the Census statistic of the system.

Marines can invade from any type of transports they are embarked upon, but they cannot invade if they are deployed for security (see 4.4 Ship Security Detachments). Other ground units may invade if a division of Assault ships is used in support of each such ground unit. A division of assault ships is the same number of assault ships used to determine that assault ship's maintenance cost. A division of heavy cruiser hull type assault ships would be 3 ships. A division of light cruiser hull type assault ships would be 4 ships. This number is always based on the normal division size for the assault ship's hull type. If an Assault ship happens to have a smaller than normal maintenance division due to special cost items, it does not mean that you can use fewer ships to support an invasion successfully.

Assault ships used to support an invading ground unit may not be used to carry any other ground unit; their carrying capacity and assault shuttles are used to hold the invading troops. If a division of assault ships supports a Marine unit in an invasion, the unit invades at its full Attack Value. This is the marine assault bonus. One division of assault ships may only support one ground unit in any given invasion. Assault ships that support an invading ground unit may also be ordered to provide Tactical Support (see Tactical Support).

The invading units must seize a beachhead before any other units of that player or allied units may land on the planet. A beachhead is seized when the invading unit successfully damages a defending ground unit and survives the counter attack. If more than one unit is invading on the same defender, each unit must contribute more attrition damage than the unit's defense to seize a beachhead. If an invading unit secures a beachhead, it can continue to fight next turn as a normal ground unit, it is no longer considered to be invading. Otherwise, the unit is considered to have not successfully invaded from its transports and must re-invade or disembark during the next campaign turn.

So long as one invading units secures a beachhead, units of the invading player or allied powers may land during the Landings and Deployment phase. This does not allow another invading unit that was not successful in securing a beachhead to disembark this turn. Units cannot be ordered to both invade and disembark on the same turn. If all units belonging to a player and all allied powers are destroyed on a planet, the player will then have to invade again to secure a beachhead for future landings.

Units not in reserve status attacked by an invading unit may attack the invading unit, even though they were not ordered to do so in 3.2 Turn Orders Phase. This is a bonus attack, in addition to an attack ordered on a unit already on the planet. For its attack on the invading unit, the defending unit is given a +1 "dug in" bonus to its Attack value. A unit attacked by more than one invading units is entitled to a bonus attack on each unit.

Tactical Support

Ships or flights in orbit or based on the planet may provide Tactical Support to ground units attacking opposing units on the planet. This tactical support may be used to support an invasion or a normal attack.

A +1 Attack value may be granted to any attack made by a ground unit if enough units to generate 4 bombardment points are ordered to provide Tactical Support in an invasion or normal attack for that ground unit. No one unit may receive more than a +1 bonus to its Attack value from Tactical Support.

Only ships not in reserve status may provide Tactical Support or participate in any kind of bombardment activity.

Productivity Suppression

Ships in orbit may use their bombardment value to suppress the use of Productivity on a planet. This effect only lasts as long as the suppression is maintained, but it also takes effect immediately, unlike 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment, which has permanent effects and takes an entire turn to complete. For a cost of 4 bombardment points per Productivity point suppressed, ships in orbit can lower the effective Productivity figure of a planet for ALL purposes. This includes any derivative benefits such as the ability to base atmospheric ships and flights, in addition to the obvious effect on planetary income. Of course, ships in reserve status cannot perform Productivity Suppression.

Interdiction of Basing

Ships in orbit may use their bombardment to prevent the use of the planet as a base for flights or atmospheric capable ships. At a cost of 1 bombardment point per Productivity point, the interdicting ships may effectively lower the Productivity figure for a planet for the purposes of basing, only. Like Productivity Suppression, this effect is temporary and lasts only as long as the interdiction is maintained, but begins as soon as the ships are assigned to the mission and achieve orbit at the beginning of 3.6.5 Troop Combat Phase. Of course, ships in reserve status cannot perform Interdiction of Basing.

Landings and Deployment

Once all ground unit attacks have been resolved, ground units may disembark from transports onto planets, so long as the planet is owned by the power or an allied power or a beachhead on a contested planet has been established by the power or an allied power. At this time, ground units also embark from planets onto transports owned by the player or an allied power. As a result, a particular ground unit may not both embark and disembark from transports in the same campaign turn. Also, units that invaded as per Invasions this campaign turn may not embark on transports at this time regardless of whether they established a beachhead or not.

Other cargo (including units that may be carried as cargo) are embarked, disembarked or deployed in this step. Cargo cannot be embarked and disembarked or deployed on the same turn. Ships in reserve may not embark, disembark, or deploy units.

Disruption of Planetary Economy

The mere fact that ground units are fighting on a planet can cause a disruption in planetary productivity. If your campaign involves non-planet areas in a system, these rules apply to any site that is used for Productivity and must be protected and conquered by ground units. The owner of a contested planet should total the undamaged attrition points of all of the units owned by him or her and of allied powers. This should be compared to the attrition point total of all opposing units (allied or not). If the owning player has 90% or more of the total attrition points, the Productivity of the planet is unaffected.

If the owning player has over 50% of the attrition points (but less than 90%), then the Productivity of the planet is considered to be half (round all fractions up) of its actual value for ALL purposes, until the owner player obtains greater than 90% of the attrition total of all ground units on the planet. If the owning player has less than 50% of the attrition points on the planet, then the Productivity of the planet is reduced to 1, if the unadjusted Productivity is 3 or higher, or to 0 if it is less. Again, this lasts only until the owning player improves the ratio of ground unit attrition points.

The Disrupting effects of ground combat take into consideration ground units that landed in Landings and Deployments phase and the Productivity figure used is the reduced figure from the effects of Productivity Suppression, but is not effected by Interdiction of Basing. If the disruptive effect of combat ends up reducing the Productivity figure of the planet more than the effects of Interdiction of Basing, obviously the more constraining Productivity figure is used to determine the amount of basing that is legal on the planet.

The owner of contesting units compares the attrition totals of the contesting units under his or her control to the total attrition value of all ground units on the planet to determine the amount of the Productivity figure they control. If a contesting power has 10% or less of the total attrition points total, then they do not control any significant amount of Productivity. If they have more than 10% but less than half of the total attrition points, they control 1 Productivity if the unadjusted Productivity is 3 or higher. If they have more than half of total attrition points, then they control half of the Productivity, round fractions up. A contesting power cannot control more than half of a planet's Productivity. Note that under no circumstances does this Productivity actually produce income for the contesting player. Contesting players do not control any Census until they conquer the planet. The Productivity figure under control is only of use for the purpose of basing flights on the planet or landing atmospheric ships.

Conquest of a Planet

A planet is conquered when all ground units of the planet owner are eliminated. At this time, the ownership of the planet is transferred to the power that controls the largest amount of ground forces by attrition value. The planet will remain contested if any non-allied ground forces remain on the planet. Conquest of a planet can have a very negative effect on morale.

Conquest of a System

The conquest of a system occurs when all disembarked ground units of the system owner are eliminated throughout the system. At this time the ownership of the system is transferred to the power that controls the largest amount of disembarked ground forces by attrition value. The system will remain contested if any non-allied, disembarked ground units remain in the system. Conquest of a system can have a very negative effect on morale.

Integrated Ground Combat and Bombardment Example:

Force A in orbit over player B's planet has 2 divisions of Heavy Cruiser Assault Ships, a Transport Fleet, a Gunship Cruiser, 3 Light Cruisers, 6 Destroyers, 6 flights of Heavy Fighters, 1 Marine unit (Attack 2, Defense Value 3, D Factor D4, Attrition 3) embarked on the first Assault Ship division, and 1 Regulars Infantry unit (Attack 1, Defense Value 2, D Factor D4, Attrition 4) embarked on the Transport Fleet.

Force B has 1 Elite Infantry (Attack 2, Defense Value 2, D Factor D4, Attrition 4), 2 Garrison Infantry units (Attack 1, Defense Value 1, D Factor D3, Attrition 4), and 1 Armor unit (Attack 3, Defense Value 4, D Factor D4, Attrition 3).

Integrated Ground Combat Example, Turn 1:

Player A orders his Gunship Cruiser, 3 Light Cruisers, 6 Destroyers, and 6 flights of Heavy Fighters (11 Attrition) to begin an Anti-Troop Bombardment of the Armor unit. The Assault ship cannot participate in the bombardment, as they must support the invasions. Player A orders his Marines and his Regulars unit to invade. The Marines are to invade a Garrison unit. They are to be supported by the first Assault Ship division. Two of the Assault ships are also ordered to provide tactical support (4 Bombardment = +1 Attack Value). The Regulars Infantry will also invade on the same Garrison unit as the Marine to increase the chance of elimination. The second Assault ship division supports the invasion of the Regulars Infantry (non-Marine) unit, allowing it to invade from the Transport Fleet. Two Assault ships are also ordered to provide Tactical Support, which adds a +1 attack bonus.

Player B has no orders listed for this turn pertaining to the ground units.

Player A's Marine invade with an Attack value of 3 and a rolled D Factor of 2. The Regulars unit has an attack value of 0 and a rolled D factor of 2. The Garrison's defense value of 2 (+1 dug-in bonus applied) is insufficient to save it from the onslaught and is destroyed. It does, however, return fire. Its attack factor of 2 (dug-in bonus +1 applied) and its rolled D factor of 2 results in 1 attrition damage to the Marine. The Garrison also rolls an attack on the Regulars Infantry getting a 3 on its D factor doing 3 attrition damage to the Regulars but failing to destroy it. The Marine unit acquires a beachhead, but the Regulars failed to beat the Garrison's defense value in its invasion and failed to form a beachhead and remains on the Transport Fleet.

Integrated Ground Combat Example, Turn 2:

Player A orders his Marine unit to attack the last unit of serious danger, the Elite Infantry unit. But Player A also has a fallback. The 6 bombardment from the freed up Assault Cruiser division allows for two Anti-Troop Bombardment missions to be performed, with 2 bombardment on the Garrison unit and 4 assigned to the Elite Infantry. The Regular Infantry attempts another invasion on the remaining Garrison unit with the Assault Cruisers providing it with a +1 Attack bonus.

Player B orders the Elite Infantry, Armor unit and Garrison to attack the Marine unit. Even if the Armor is lost to the bombardment, the situation looks grim for the Marines.

Player A's bombardment finally has results. His rolled value of 5 plus 11 Bombardment results in a value of 16. Player B's roll of 5 plus his defense of 4 results in a value of 9. The difference of 7 results in 3 attrition damage to the Armor unit and it is eliminated.

Player A's marines attack the Elite Infantry with an Attack Value of 3 and a D factor roll of 4, resulting in the Elite Infantry's elimination, but it still gets its attack back. The Regulars Infantry invades on the Garrison, rolling a D factor of 3, it does 1 attrition damage to the Garrison, obtaining a beachhead.

Player B's Elite Infantry rolls 3 for its D factor and the Garrison rolls a 2. The resulting 5 attrition damage points (2+3+1+2-3) is more than enough to eliminate the Marines. The Garrison takes its bonus attack rolling a 2 plus its Attack Value of 2 (+1 dug-in) results in 2 attrition damage points, insufficient to kill the Regulars Infantry (it has repaired its Turn 1 attrition damage).

Note: Player B's planet is contested. It is no longer a supply source. As a result, the Garrison's 1 attrition damage is not repaired, as it cannot trace a basic supply path (see 3.7.7 Attrition Damage Repair).

Integrated Ground Combat Example, Turn 3:

Player A assigns his now overwhelming 11 bombardment point bombardment group to begin an Anti-Troop Bombardment on the remaining Garrison unit, assuming it survives the attack his Regular Infantry will make as well.

Player B assigns his Garrison to attack the Regulars Infantry. However, unless Player A's supply lines are cut (and the Regulars Infantry is then unable to repair its Attrition Damage), there will be no chance of eliminating the Regulars Infantry.

Player A's Bombardment on the Garrison rolls a 6 plus 2 bombardment results in an 8. Player B's luck isn't changing and rolls a 4 plus 1 Defense means his Garrison has taken 1 attrition damage point from the bombardment.

Player A's Regulars Infantry attacks with 2 Attack Value and rolls a 1 for his D factor, subtracting the Garrison's 1 Defense Value means it still takes 2 attrition damage. This normally wouldn't eliminate the unit, but the 1 attrition damage from the bombardment hasn't been repaired, along with the 1 attrition damage from last turn's invasion, and 2 additional attrition damage points is sufficient to eliminate it. There is no point in Player B rolling, as the Garrison's attack cannot eliminate the Regulars.

Construction Completion Phase

All new unit purchases or repairs ordered in the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase are completed in the Construction Completion Phase. All new units are deployed to the map at the location they were built or purchased. Flights and ground units also replenish their strength during this phase.

Construction Capacity & Dock Space

Systems can have multiple sources of construction capacity, the most typical being sites with utilized Productivity. Planets and shipyards, both orbital and planetary, are the most common sources of construction capacity. These sources often have a finite amount of dock space, limiting the number of ships that can be built at the location.

Construction capacity represents the raw economic ability to finance and implement large-scale ship construction projects. The construction capacity of a planet is equal to number of points it generates each turn for the owning player, or put in simpler terms the planet's utilized Productivity times its RAW value.

Dock space represents the number of available construction slots available at the planet or shipyard for purposes of ship construction. Each dock space can facilitate one ship of any given size. The dock space of a planet is equal to its utilized Productivity. Similarly, each shipyard has a number of dock spaces equal to their location's utilized Productivity. Flights do not require the use of dock space for construction.

If a power does not have enough construction capacity or dock spaces at its shipyards or planets to perform all the work that was scheduled for completion and paid for this turn, the items in excess of its construction capacity and/or dock space are not performed. The controlling player selects the construction projects delayed by the lack of capacity or dock space. These projects will instead be completed during the next 3.7 Construction Completion Phase, if possible. Items can be left partially completed at a shipyard or planet this turn and completed at the same facility next turn (See 3.7.7 Partial Construction).

Construction at Planets and Planetary Shipyards

Planetary ship and flight construction takes place in factories and assembly yards spread across the planet's surface. The construction capacity of a planet is equal to its economic output (utilized Productivity times RAW) and the total number of dock spaces available at the planet is equal to its utilized Productivity.

Atmospheric ships and flights can be built on planets normally at no penalty. Planetary sites are often favored for the construction of atmospheric ships and are where all flights are constructed. Flights built at a planet do not occupy nor do they require dock spaces.

Planetary shipyards can be built to increase a planet's available construction infrastructure. The cost of planetary shipyards is covered in source material. If not specified, the cost of a planetary shipyard is 16 economic points, with a maintenance expense of 2 economic points per turn. Each shipyard has a construction capacity equal to the planet's economic output and a number of dock spaces equal to the planet's utilized Productivity.

It is not possible to combine leftover capacities of planetary shipyards or other sources of utilized Productivity for any purpose (exception see 3.7.4 Base Construction).

Non-atmospheric ships can be built on planets, but require extensive prefabrication and must be assembled in orbit at completion. These extra costs double the economic cost of non-atmospheric ships built at planets. This economic penalty applies to the planet's construction capacity as well as to the ship's actual purchase price. Non-atmospheric flights are not subject to this penalty and may be built at their normal economic cost. Only planetary shipyards can be used to build non-atmospheric ships. Planets without a planetary shipyard cannot build non-atmospheric ships at all.

Example: Canis Majoris has a RAW of 4 and utilized Productivity of 5. The colony can spend 20 economic points or less on new ship/flight purchases and has 5 dock spaces available, meaning the colony can build or repair up to 5 ships at one time at the planet.

Canis Majoris also has two planetary shipyards. Each of these planetary shipyards can build an additional 20 economic points of units and adds an additional 5 dock spaces to the available amount of dock space at the colony.

In total, Canis Majoris can build a maximum of 15 craft per turn equal to or less than 60 economic points in cost.

Construction at Orbital Shipyards

Orbital shipyards (commonly referred to simply as 'shipyards') are the primary location at which ships are constructed. These bases allow for zero-gravity construction of large starships. Fed by space-based industry, orbital shipyards are more economical than planetary sites for building non-atmospheric ship types. The cost of shipyards is covered in source material. If not specified, the cost of a shipyard is 20 economic points, with a maintenance expense of 2 economic points per turn.

Each shipyard has a construction capacity equal to its location's economic output (utilized Productivity times RAW) and a number of dock spaces equal to its location's Utilized Productivity. Because of this, shipyards built at larger, mature colonies will be able to build a larger number of more expensive ships than shipyards located as smaller colonies.

Flights can be built at shipyards, with all flight construction costs counting against the shipyard's construction capacity. Like fighters built at a planet, flights built at shipyards do not require or occupy dock spaces at the shipyard.

It is not possible to combine leftover capacities of shipyards or other sources of utilized Productivity for any purpose (exception see 3.7.4 Base Construction).

Example: Ross has a RAW of 3, utilized Productivity of 2 and 3 shipyards. Each shipyard built at Ross has a construction capacity of 6 and dock spaces of 2. This means that Ross can build a maximum of 6 craft per turn equal to or less than 18 economic points in cost.

Base Construction

Bases (including DEFSATS and mines) are built in a different manner than ships. Planets (or other source of utilized Productivity) can spend their construction capacity to build a base in orbit of them. Note that this counts against the planet's construction capacity for purposes of other construction projects for the turn. Building a base anywhere else in the system requires the use of a Transport Fleet for every 10 economic points or fraction thereof spent on base construction. If a planet is contributing to the completion of bases in another system, there must be a Transport Fleet in the planet's system, the destination system and every system between the two for every 10 economic points or fraction thereof spent on base construction. The route over which the Transport Fleets cross may not include a restricted jump lane.

Example 1 - Planet Building a Base in Orbit of a Planet:

Vega (RAW 3, utilized Productivity 3) is building its first shipyard in orbit of the planet. According to 3.7.3 Construction at Planets and Planetary Shipyards, the construction capacity of Vega is 9. Therefore, Vega can use its 9 construction capacity for base construction, completing 9 points of construction on the new shipyard.

Example 2 – Two Systems Contributing to Base Construction:

The governor of the Vega colony (from Example 1) manages to pull strings and gets construction capacity diverted from Cepheus to aid in the construction of Vega's new shipyard. Cepheus will send 11 construction capacity to Vega in order to complete the shipyard. Cepheus is two jumps away from Vega.

In order to move the construction capacity from Cepheus to Vega, two Transport Fleets will be required in each of the three systems (Vega, Cepheus, and the connecting system) because 11 construction capacity is being moved. If only 10 construction capacity was moved, only 1 Transport Fleet would be required in each ofthe systems in order to move the construction capacity. If more than 20 construction capacity was being moved, 3 Transport Fleets would be required in each system.

In both cases, the Transport Fleets must be in place and ordered to carry the economic points for construction during 3.2 Turn Orders Phase for the construction order to be legal. Illegal construction orders are not performed and the economic points are left unspent. The Transport Fleet cannot be ordered to do anything else this turn if it is participating in base construction. If for any reason the Transport Fleets are not in place during this phase, then the points spent and carried by those Transport Fleets to help complete the base are lost. The owning power chooses which points are lost if such a mishap occurs.

Example 3 – Transport Fleet(s) Not in Place:

(See Example 2) Due to a miscommunication, one of the Transport Fleets required to move construction capacity between Cepheus and Vega was not in place to perform its base construction duties. The points necessary to fully utilize the transferred construction capacity were already spent during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase, so the points from that Transport Fleet's base construction group is lost.

The owning player must now choose which of the base construction groups from Cepheus will lose the points. One group of three Transport Fleets was moving 10 construction capacity from Cepheus to Vega. The second was moving only 1 construction capacity. The player opts to have the second group of Transport Fleets that are carrying only the single construction capacity point to be those inconvenienced by the delay.

In the end, the player loses 1 economic point already spent on the base construction in Vega. Meanwhile, the crew of the wayward Transport Fleet find themselves transporting hazardous industrial waste among the fringe worlds.

More than one source of utilized Productivity may contribute to the construction of a base. The special method of construction is included in the price. Orbital shipyards do not contribute to base construction or repair no matter where they are built. Planetary shipyards, however, can contribute construction capacity for purposes of base construction.

Purchasing Flight Units

Flight units can be purchased at either planets, planetary shipyards, or orbital shipyard. The only limit to the number of flights that can be built at a location in a single turn is the amount of available construction capacity at the site. Flight construction does not count against dock space at the location where they are built.

Purchasing Ground Units

The number of ground units that can be raised each turn is limited by the Census in which they are purchased. The maximum number of ground units that can be purchased at a planet in a single turn is equal to the planet's Census. Therefore a planet with a Census of 1 may only deploy 1 ground unit per turn. The net effect is that larger worlds will be able to marshal larger ground forces in a shorter amount of time while sparsely populated frontier planets will have a much harder time rounding up conscripts to fight.

Partial Construction

Items can be left partially completed at a shipyard or planet on the current turn and completed at the same facility on a following turn. This includes ships, bases, DEFSATS, mines and flights. Ground units cannot be partially constructed.

Full payment of the unit's cost is not required for construction to begin, and in some instances beginning construction on a new unit might be more prudent than waiting for the full purchase price to be available. This disadvantage to utilizing partial construction is the threat that the partially constructed unit will be destroyed before it can be completed, resulting in the loss of the points already on the now destroyed asset.

If using the 4.10 Extended Construction Times rule, the time delay between construction of the unit and its completion does not begin counting down until the full cost of the unit is paid.

New Construction Deployment

Completed ships are placed in the system of the shipyard or planet that built them. Non-atmospheric ships must be built at a shipyard. Atmospheric ships can be based off of a planet provided the planet has the basing capacity (see 3.5.1 Ship and Flight Movement). DEFSATs and mines are built in orbit around the planet or other source of utilized Productivity that built it, but can be later moved using towing units or as cargo of a Transport Fleet.

Bases are built using special rules (3.7.4 Base Construction) and will remain in the system in which they were created until destroyed or scrapped. All other units are built on a planet or other source of utilized Productivity.

In the case of non-atmospheric flights, these flights can be embarked from a planet by a Transport Fleet, using the rules for carrying cargo, or by any unit capable of basing the flights, such as a carrier or a base, in the system containing the planet.

Deactivations and Activations

Units placed in a special maintenance status such as Reserve or Mothballing during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase assume their new maintenance status at this point in the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase. The effects of these special maintenance states will take effect in the 3.1 Income Phase of the next campaign turn.

Reserve Status

Only ground units, ships and flights may be deactivated and placed in reserve status. Units under reserve status may not be given any orders other than to activate. Units to be deactivated are ordered to do so in the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase. The units remain active on the turn they are ordered to deactivate (they cost full maintenance) and are not in reserve status until the end of this phase. Reserve units cost half the maintenance of a normal unit. Units cannot be deactivated if they are carrying cargo. Units basing flights may be deactivated, but all units it is currently basing are also deactivated. Flights may only be deactivated on a planet or if its basing unit is being deactivated as well.

Activating a reserve unit requires that the unit be ordered to activate during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase. Units given the order to activate remain in reserve status (costing half maintenance) until 3.7.13 Maintenance Status Changes and full maintenance cost will need to be paid on the next turn. Units that are basing other units, such as a reserve status carrier and its fighters, may only be reactivated if all based units are also reactivated.

Mothballed Status

Mothballing is the method of taking a ship out of active duty. The ship is not lost but is instead kept for possible use in the future. A ship must be at a shipyard in order to be mothballed, with the exception of atmospheric capable ships which can be mothballed at a planet that is capable of basing them. If mothballed at a planet, atmospheric ships count against the planet's normal basing capacity.

It does not "cost" anything to mothball a ship, but the ship's maintenance value counts against the shipyard's construction capacity on the turn it is ordered to go inactive. The ship will occupy one dock space on the turn it is mothballed. Any flights on a ship can be mothballed with it, but flight maintenance costs are also counted against the shipyard's construction capacity on the turn they are mothballed.

A mothballed ship or flight pays no maintenance costs each turn. If the player wants to restore the ship (and any flights it is carrying) from "INACTIVE" service to "ACTIVE" service, it must pay the full maintenance cost using the same procedure as activating reserves (see Reserve Status). The ship will require dock space like new construction during the activation process. Units given the order to activate remain in mothballed status (costing no maintenance) until 3.7.13 Maintenance Status Changes.

Inactive units may be scrapped (see 3.7.13 Scrapping), which does remove them from the shipyard they were mothballed in. Bases, ground units and other defenses (including shipyards) may not be mothballed.

The CM may want to include a mothballed starship if the shipyard is attacked. Perhaps a mothballed unit was rushed into service for half the cost. The CM has the flexibility to handle such special situations.


Ship, bases and other defenses can become crippled or obtain damage levels which need to be repaired. Ships can be repaired in a system with a shipyard if you pay the repair cost for the ship. The repair cost is 25% of the original cost, rounding any fractional amount up. This cost counts against the construction capacity of the shipyard and each ship requires one dock space at the shipyard while repairs are performed.

Bases, atmospheric ships and fixed defenses (DEFSATS and mines) can be repaired using the construction capacity of planets or other sources of utilized Productivity in the same manner in which they are built. Repair cost is equal to 25% of the unit's original cost per base damage level (see Base Damage Levels). Atmospheric ships cost the same to repair on planets as they do at a shipyard.

Flight units, do not ever need to be repaired, as they never cripple.

Flight Replenishment

Newly purchased flights may be transported directly to a target fleet or planet in order to replace combat losses as long as they are in supply. These flights may be transported to their destination using your empire's background logistical network and do not require the intervention of any player controlled Transport Fleets or other freight services.

Units that are crippled and planets that have had their basing interdicted or Productivity suppressed are temporarily unable to base the flights, but may replenish with newly built fighters once the basing capacity is restored or the vessel repaired.

Attrition Damage Repair

Ground units that have suffered attrition damage (but were not eliminated) and are not under any out of supply status levels, able to trace a basic supply path, and not currently being carried as cargo in a crippled Transport Fleet have all of their attrition damage repaired at this point in the turn. Damaged ground units that have not lost their unit cohesion can integrate reinforcements and return to full strength. The maintenance cost for these units covers the availability of additional personnel and material needed to restore a ground unit to its' full strength.


Any unit may be scrapped to recover 50% of its original economic cost. Units must be scrapped at a place where they could be constructed, but scrapping does not count against the construction capacity for that facility. Once a unit has begun construction, the economic points can be regained at a value of 50% of the economic points already spent if the unit's construction is canceled.

Flights that can no longer be based or carried as cargo can be scrapped no matter where they are. This may seem counter intuitive as they are technically "destroyed", but the infrastructure required to support their existence is still in place on the unit that based them.

Field Repair

Military supply ships may be used to perform field repair. In order to perform this function the military supply ship must be unused during the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase. For each point of supply rating, the military supply ship can provide 1 economic point worth of repairs. Military supply ships in the same system may combine their supply ratings to perform larger repairs. Military supply ships used to perform field repair are marked used, even if they use less then their full number of field repair points. For example, a Supply (2) ship is marked as used even if it only provides 1 economic point worth of repairs.

Transport Fleets cannot perform field repairs even though they have a supply rating.

Maintenance Status Changes

Units placed in a special maintenance status such as Reserve or Mothballed during the 3.2 Turn Orders Phase assume their new maintenance status at this point in the 3.7 Construction Completion Phase. The effects of these special maintenance states will take effect in the 3.1 Income Phase of the next campaign turn.

Update Asset Phase

During this phase players update their Asset Sheets to reflect events that have occurred in the current turn in preparation for the upcoming turn. This includes adding any new builds to the empire's maintenance costs and subtracting any removed assets as well as checking for system improvements or problems.

Productivity Cost and Increases

A Productivity increase requires an investment in capital. Productivity points may only be purchased at a cost equal to ten times the new planetary Productivity value. Each planet may only increase Productivity at rate of one per turn.

Example: Epsilon Eridani has a Census of 5, a RAW of 4 and a Productivity of 1 and needs to expand local industry so as to better utilize its' RAW. The Earth player invests 20 economic points to increase Productivity to 2. The next turn the planet will be producing 8 economic points as output. Epsilon Eridani can only utilize a maximum of 5 Productivity points due to its current Census value. It will not be effective to increase Epsilon Eridani's Productivity over 5 until the Census increases.

CM's Note: The CM is free to modify these conditions to fit any story element in the game. For instance, perhaps there is an exception and a system has been receiving help from outside sources and is able to increase Productivity for less.

Morale and System Loyalty

Each system has a morale number; this is a representation of the support from that system. The morale and support of a system can mean the difference between prosperity and outright insurrection. It is also important for an expanding empire to extend its influence to colonies.

Checks are made to verify a system's loyalty. This represents a number of factors that can affect the Census's attitude towards its controlling government. The table below lists conditions that require a check, a target number to see if that condition effects the morale of the system, and the possible effect that can occur. If a condition is met roll a d6 and compare to the target number. If the roll is equal to or less than the target number the effect listed occurs. If multiple conditions are met for a system roll each check separately. These checks must be made every turn and are not cumulative unless specified. It is also possible to reverse effects. Morale cannot go below 0 or above the current Census.

If the Morale value is greater than or equal to half the Census then the system is considered in good order. If the Morale value becomes less than half of the Census number, utilized Productivity from that planet is immediately halved. This represents the dissension in the colony and the unrest of the population. If the Morale reaches 0, then the colony stops producing and is considered to be in rebellion. If the planet is unoccupied, it becomes an independent planet.

Using Troops to Control a Population

If the Morale of the system drops to 0, it is possible that troops may be used to keep the colony functional and loyal to the controlling power. One troop unit is required per Census in order to keep the colony's utilized Productivity flowing at half its normal rate, but the presence of any ground units will keep the system under the player's control.

If you use ground units to control a planet, roll a d10 for every Census, on a roll of 10, that Census point actually rises up and fights the unit controlling it (determine randomly which ground unit was patrolling that Census point). Ground combat occurs during the next 3.6.5 Troop Combat Phase. The Census point will attack the unit that was controlling it. Only the unit controlling the rebelling Census point may attack it, as the other units are busy with their own Census points to police, unless there are actually more ground units than Census points. In that case, excess ground units may assist in quelling the rebellion.

Morale Check Chart

ConditionTarget NumberEffect
System is more than 3 jumps away from a friendly colony and has a census of 5 or greater1-1 to Morale
System is cut off from homeworld (i.e. no continuous path through controlled or friendly territory can be traced)2-1 to Morale
Hostile force seized system last turn3-3 to Morale
System is held by twice as many ground units as CensusAutomatic+1 to Morale
Productivity is at 0 and Census is greater than 3 (representing lack of jobs and self sufficiency) - CumulativeAutomatic-1 to Morale
Full employment (Productivity = Census)Automatic+1 to Morale
Empire's homeworld is attacked1-1 to Morale
Orbital bombardmentVariesSee 3.6.4 Orbital Bombardment
Use of IntelVariesSee 3.4.5 Intel Missions
Event from Random Event tableVariesSee 4.14 Random Events Table
(CM Only) Government takes unpopular actionVaries

If the controlling units eliminate all rebelling Census points the planet's Morale will go to 1, signifying the peoples resolve to stop fighting. If a rebel Census point destroys ANY ground unit, every Census then takes a d10 roll at a +2 modifier to see if they join the rebellion. An eliminated rebel Census point rolls a d10 plus any excess attrition damage above what was needed to eliminate it. On a result of 10 or more the Census of the system is reduced by 1. Otherwise the rebel Census point merely stops rebelling and if there are enough ground units, is forced to become productive at half its normal rate.

CM's Note: Some issues with a colony's morale could tie very closely with a story line that the CM has introduced. This offers players a chance to get away the set ideas in the Morale System and have some fun with it. The CM may also want more control of a planetary Morale increase, for instance, a CM thinks that refugees from a near by war have fled in the direction of a system, deserving a -1 when they roll. On the same note, if citizens of Alpha Centauri are ignored and undefended by Earth, the CM can introduce a potential Morale problem. The CM option exists to give the campaign more freedom.

Population Increases

It is possible for the Census value of a system to increase over time. Every 12 turns (starting with the first turn), each system rolls a d10 and adds its Census value to the roll. If the number rolled exceeds 15, then the Census has increased by 1. If the value does not go up (which is possible in the case of a small colony), then add +1 to the next population increase roll. This effect is cumulative.

Example: A colony which has a Census of 2, and has not increased in two checks (24 turns), gets to add 4 (+2 Census, +2 missed checks) to their next check. Census cannot exceed the system's Carrying Capacity.

Colonizing a System

To colonize a system, the player needs to somehow move its citizens from an existing system to a new one (unless your are using the optional 4.9 Quick Expansion Colony Fleet Rules). Colony creation is done by creating a Colony Fleet. This is an abstract unit, like a Trade Fleet, that is made of roughly ten passenger liners or colony vessels that are suited to carrying a large number of sentients. This is similar to the Transport Fleet system, but Transport Fleets would be unable to handle the large amounts of lifeforms and materials involved.

Once the player has a Colony Fleet ready to go (and potentially any assigned escorts), they can move one Census from the current system to the Colony Fleet. This is considered a loaded Colony Fleet. It may now move like any other fleet to its destination.

With the Colony Fleet in orbit, on the next 3.8 Update Assets Phase, the Census from the fleet is moved to the planet. They cannot build nor do anything yet for that turn as it is assumed they are establishing their colony. They make no Morale or any other checks for this turn. A new colony starts with its Morale equal to its Census (1) and both Intel and Productivity at 0 (unless there is some existing infrastructure already on the planet.)

End of Turn Phase

The turn ends in this phase. Optional rules like the Random Events option take place in this phase and all results are applied in the next campaign turn. If they are one-time events they occur in their appropriate phase next turn. If they are permanent effects, they take effect immediately and are treated as if they occurred during the turn just ending, in the appropriate phase.


Unit Abilities

Many units, generally those who are variants of Ships-Of-The-Line, have special abilities. These abilities usually give that unit some small advantage in certain circumstances.
  Assault - These units are able to perform Planetary Assaults. They can carry a number of ground units equal to the unit's cost (rounded down). A ground unit is roughly 10 Boarding Parties in size.
  Ballistic - Ballistic units rely on their long-range seeking weapons (usually drones) as their main armorment. They benifit from being able to engage their opponents from extreme range or from outside of the normal engagement distance, but require more logistical attention. These units are generally called "Drone Bombardment" ships in SFB.
  Carrier - Carrier ships carry fighter units. These are treated as "True Carriers" by SFB, and have fighter supplies to match. The basing number given for them are a number of "LF" units they can carry. Units with this ability may carry "MF" fighter units, but those units take twice as many spaces of Basing.
  Cloak - These units have a cloaking device installed. Not only do they gain the benefits of the "Stealth" ability, but have other combat advantages.
  Command - These units are designed with augmented Command & Control facilities. This is represented by a larger Command Rate. This unit is considered a Leader Unit by SFB.
  Command Post - Command Posts are large defensive and logistical bases that provide a bonus to morale checks made in that system. They also prevent that system from dropping to 0 Morale.
  Explorer - Explorer units gain more information when enetering a new system then normal units.
  Scout - Scout units have advantages when it comes to detecting stealthed or cloaked units. They also grant some advantages to the fleet they are part of, when it comes to combat.
  Slow - Slow units do not move as far in a turn as normal units. Instead of two spaces, they can move only one.
  Stealth - Stealthed units are harder to detect. When combat is between a fleet containing only ships with this trait, the opposing force has a reduced Weapon Status.
  Supply Depot - A unit that has this trait can act like a colony in good order, when it comes to determining supply lines.


Note that this is likely to run out-of-date fairly quickly. Advances in the User Interface and tweaks to the game are likely to invalidate the look and the math of this sample game. But it is included nonetheless because it should give a feel for how the campaign progresses and what sort of involvement it will require from the player.


This game is from the point of view of a Frax player. For purposes of showing several aspects of interacting with other players in the game, the sample does not start at turn-one of the campaign.